Wageningen University
& ICOS Netherlands

Version History
Please click here for a comparison of current CarbonTracker Europe flux estimates with other releases.

Release Notes for CarbonTracker Europe 2015 (CTE2015)
  1. Product
    • Released on 01 March 2016
    • CTE2015 flux estimates are available from 2001 through 2014
    • Documentation is updated for CTE2015
    • The flux comparison table has been updated.
  2. Observations
    • Observational data was taken from ObsPack GLOBALVIEWplusv1.0 (obspack_co2_1_GLOBALVIEWplus_v1.0_2015-07-30), see here.
    • Where available, hourly observations were assimilated, using the obs_flag criteria to decide which hours of the day to include. The model data mismatch of the hourly data was scaled to give equal weight to continuous versus flask sampling sites. See here.
  3. Fires and Biosphere
    • CTE2015 uses SIBCASA-GFED4 biosphere and fire fluxes, on a 3 hourly time resolution.
  4. Fossil fuel emissions
    • Fossil fuel emissions are still from the Carbones project, but the global total emissions for 2010-2014 were scaled to the global totals used in the Global Carbon Budget 2015. See here.

Release Notes for CarbonTracker Europe 2014 (CTE2014)
  1. Product
    • Released on 01 February 2015
    • CTE2014 flux estimates are available from 2001 through 2013
  2. Observations
    • Observational data was taken from 3 ObsPacks (obspack_co2_1_PROTOTYPE_v1.0.3_2013-01-29, obspack_co2_1_PROTOTYPE_v1.0.4b_2014-02-13, and obspack_co2_1_NOAA-DATA_v1.0_2014-07-11), see here.
  3. Fires and Biosphere
    • CTE2014 uses SIBCASA-GFED4 biosphere and fire fluxes. From September 2012 climatological values are used.
  4. Data Assimilation and Transport Modeling
    • TM5 was driven by ERA-Interim meteorology. The convection fields were taken directly from ECMWF instead of calculated using the Tiedtke scheme.

Release Notes for CarbonTracker Europe 2013 (CTE2013)
  1. Product
    • Released on 01 December 2013
    • CTE2013 flux estimates are available from 2001 through 2011
  2. Observations
    • All observational data was taken from ObsPack (obspack_co2_1_PROTOTYPE_v1.0.3_2013-01-29).
  3. Fossil Fuels
    • Fossil fuel emission estimates are no longer from the Miller product, but instead we use the fluxes compiled within the EU carbones program, created by the IER Stuttgart.
  4. Fires and Biosphere
    • CTE2013 uses SIBCASA-GFED4 biosphere and fire fluxes.
  5. Data Assimilation and Transport Modeling
    • The CTE2013 statevector is a gridded statevector for northern hemisphere terrestrial regions. In this statevector a decorrelation length scale (300km for North America, 200km for Europe, and 1000km for Asia) is applied within each ecoregion to allow more flexible adjustments of the flux patterns.
    • The total number of statevector elements per week is now 9835 instead of the previously used 58 ecoregions. Due to the correlation length, the number of degrees of freedom is now ~1077 (it was ~135 in CTE2008).
    • TM5 was run with two zoom regions inside a global 3x2 degree domain: North America 1x1, and Europe 1x1.
    • TM5 was driven by ERA-Interim meteorology rather than operational forecast data from ECMWF
    • In TM5, the transport between the Northern and Southern hemispere was optimized using SF6
    • The new CTDAS software was used to create CTE2013

Release Notes for CarbonTracker Europe 2008 (CTE2008)
  1. Product
    • Released on 09 September 2009
    • CTE2008 flux estimates are available from 2000 through 2007
    • Documentation is updated for CTE2008
  2. Observations
    • Data from the CarboEurope program were added to the assimilation
  3. Fossil Fuels
    • Seasonal cycles of fossil fuel emissions for Europe have been added based on the IER Stuttgart fossil fuel estimates.
  4. Fires and Biosphere
    • We continue to use the GFED v2 product. This has been updated through the end of 2007. In the near future, the GFED team is expecting to change its source of NDVI data from NOAA polar orbiting satellites to a similar MODIS product, and this will become the GFED version 3 release. We will evaluate this new product when it becomes available, but CTE2008 still uses the GFED v2 estimates.
  5. Ocean
    • As in CT2008, ocean prior fluxes in CTE2008 are based on Jacobson et al. (2007) ocean inverse estimates rather than Takahashi et al. (2002). Please see documentation for more information. As in CT2008, we estimate air-sea fluxes for 30 ocean regions.
  6. Data Assimilation and Transport Modeling
    • A European zoom region to 1x1 degrees was used in TM5. We treat the 25-layer to 34-layer discontinuity at the end of 2005 in the same manner as was done for CT2008 (see release notes for that release, below).

Release Notes for CarbonTracker 2007B
  1. Product
    • Released on 20 December 2007
    • CT2007B flux estimates are available from 2000 through 2006 (the previous CT2007A release covered through 2005)
    • Documentation is updated for CT2007B
    • A flux summary table has been added comparing CT2007A and CT2007B total fluxes
  2. Observations
    • New daytime average data have been added for Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada (SBL_06C3, beginning June 2003)
    • New nighttime average data have been added for Niwot Ridge, Colorado, United States (NWR_03C3, beginning August 2005)
    • New nighttime average data have been added for Storm Peak Lab, Colorado, United States (SPL_03C3, beginning September 2005)
    • CO2 mole fractions are now based on flask pair averages rather than the first flask of a pair only.
    • Data for Fraserdale, Ontario, Canada (FRD_03C3) have been reprocessed based on the Environment Canada submission to WMO.
    • Time averaging for FRD_03C3 has been shifted by one hour based on new information about reported times.
    • Time averaging for observatory sites has been changed to exclude erroneous hours for sites close to the international dateline.
    • A few recent flask data points have had their Quality Control flag values revised and are now excluded.
    • LEF data for 2000-2003 is revised based on the use of Licor-1 values rather than Licor-2. Two CO2 sensors were present at the 396m level of LEF, but it was determined that the Licor-1 was more reliable.
  3. Fossil Fuels
    • Fossil fuel estimates in the previous release (CT2007A) were based on global emission inventories from CDIAC only until 2002. For 2003 and 2004, global totals were linearly extrapolated using the average percentage increase of the previous 10 years, and for 2005, emissions from 2004 were simply repeated. Spatial patterns were based on linearly interpolated and extrapolated EDGAR emissions estimates for 1995 and 2000. For CT2007B, global totals are used from CDIAC through 2004, and 2005 and 2006 data are extrapolated based on energy consumption statistics from BP for those years. The coarse spatial patterns are now derived from CDIAC and BP country statistics, and only the within country patterns come from EDGAR. Both global totals and regional trends are different, especially after 2002.
  4. Fires
    • A new GFED v2 release has been implemented and runs to the end of 2006, correcting an issue in which fires for 2005 were not available.
  5. Biosphere
    • The biosphere fluxes are consistent with the new GFED v2 release and complete through the end of 2006.
  6. Ocean
    • Ocean prior fluxes are now based on Jacobson et al. (2007) estimates rather than Takahashi et al. (2002). Please see documentation for more information.
  7. Data Assimilation and Transport Modeling
    • CarbonTracker inverts for 30 ocean regions in CT2007B rather than 11. These finer regions are a superset of the 11 TransCom ocean regions, and can be simply aggregated to the coarser regions.
    • A new ecoregion mask was created with an improved land/ocean mask near the coasts, causing shifts in the total area of some coastal ecoregions.
    • In CT2007A, the month of December 2005 was run without the 1x1 degree zoom region. For that month, transport was simulated at 3x2 degrees in that region. In CT2007B, the 1x1 zoom ECMWF meteorology was available throughout the end of October, 2006. As a result, the present release has 1x1 degree analysis through October 28, 2006, and 3x2 meteorology for the remaining eight weeks.
    • At the end of 2005, ECMWF changed the vertical resolution in its model from 60 to 91 layers. For use in the TM5 offline transport model, the 60-layer model results are reduced to 25 layers. Similarly, the 91-layer results are reduced to 34. As a result, the transport model has a 25-to-34 level discontinuity at the end of 2005. We have integrated over this transition by interpolating the CO2 fields to the higher resolution, using a mass-conserving algorithm.

Release Notes for CarbonTracker 2007A
  1. Released on 28 February 2007.
  2. CarbonTracker 2007A has a number of caveats for the year 2005 listed below. These shortcomings will most likely lead to revised flux estimates for this year in our next CarbonTracker release (2008). Most importantly, we expect the total uncertainty on the 2005 estimate to become smaller even than the estimate of 2004, as more observations become available for assimilation.
  3. The CO2 measurements obtained from the Meteorological Service Canada (MSC) currently go through February 2005. This record will be expanded for CarbonTracker 2008.
  4. The month December of 2005 was run without the United States 1x1 degree zoom region in the transport model. This is due to a change in model resolution in the parent model from ECMWF in February of 2006. We expect future CarbonTracker releases to be able to integrate past this moment in time as we develop the software to deal with this discontinuity.
  5. The 2005 fossil fuel emissions are identical to those used in 2004. Although economic statistics are available to extrapolate the fossil fuel emissions from previous years, we did not include this information in version 2007. We expect better fossil fuel emission estimates for 2005 to be included in CarbonTracker 2008
  6. The 2005 fire emissions are the climatological average of those used in 2000-2004. The new GFED2 release (weekly fluxes through 2005) came out too late to be incorporated in CarbonTracker 2007A
  7. Annual mean uncertainties for CarbonTracker 2007A are calculated as the annual average of the 52 weekly estimated covariances. This estimate does not include any temporal covariances in the fluxes which would substantially reduce uncertainty. We feel that until we have implemented a proper mechanism to propagate such information through time, we can not objectively quote the true uncertainty on the annual mean that would result from the assimilation of all the observations. Our current number is supposed to represent a conservative estimate of the real uncertainty to be compared to previous flux estimates.
  8. Uncertainty maps on the fluxes show smaller uncertainties in the tropics than in the extra-tropics. This is counter-intuitive as the tropical carbon cycle is least well understood and most poorly constrained by observations. In recognition of this, CarbonTracker 2007A uses strong covariances on ecosystems in the tropical regions. The variance on each region is lowered to limit the resulting total uncertainty per continent. Since our maps only show variances per region, and not covariances, this fact is not reflected in the mapped product.
  9. Fossil fuel emissions can occur over regions characterized as ocean. This is partly due to real emissions from international shipping, and partly due to emissions occurring in coastal land regions that are assigned to the ocean in our coarse 1x1 degree aggregation scheme. The same is true for fossil fuel emissions over non-optimized regions such as ice, polar deserts, and inland seas. This problem shows up only when aggregating to larger land, ocean, or continental regions for interpretation, but has no influence on the assimilation process itself.

Copyright Wageningen University, March 2016