Wageningen University
& ICOS Netherlands


Documentation - CTE2015
Biosphere Oceans Observations Fires Fossil Fuel TM5 Nested Model Assimilation
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Observations [go to top]
1.   Introduction
The observations of atmospheric CO2 mole fraction by 25 different laboratories are at the heart of CarbonTracker. They inform us on changes in the carbon cycle, whether they are regular (such as the seasonal growth and decay of leaves and trees), or irregular (such as the release of tons of carbon by a wildfire). The results in CarbonTracker depend directly on the quality, amount and location of observations available, and the degree of detail at which we can monitor the carbon cycle reliably increases strongly with the density of our observing network.

2.   Detailed Description
This study uses CO2 observations from in-situ measurements or from air samples collected in flasks at 147 global sites by 25 institutions worldwide. All contributing laboratories are included under collaborators. These observations are included in ObsPack GLOBALVIEWplusv1.0. This ObsPack product contains 205 time series of surface flask samples, quasi-continuous in-situ observations also from towers and aircraft samples. Table 1 and the figure below summarize which time series have been used in our inversion. We assimilate a maximum of 1 time series per site (e.g. not 2 from the same location from different laboratories). Note that all of these observations are calibrated against the same world CO2 scale (WMO-2007).

For most of the quasi-continuous sampling sites, the time series consist of hourly averaged mole fractions. We assimilate only mole fractions from the afternoon hours, recognizing that our atmospheric transport model does not always capture the continental nighttime stability regime while daytime well-mixed conditions are better matched. At mountain-top sites (e.g. MLO, NWR, and SPL), we use the mole fractions from the nighttime hours as this tends to be the most stable time period and avoids periods of upslope flows that contain local vegetative and/or anthropogenic influence. The selection of hourly observations included in the assimilation is based on the flags as set in the ObsPack data sets. A set of coastal sites is moved by one degree into the ocean to force the model sample to be more representative of the actual site conditions (based on Transcom continuous simulations). Table 1 summarizes how data from the different measurement programs are included for this study.

The CO2 data from ObsPack used in CarbonTracker are freely available for download. Users are encouraged to review the literature and contact the measurement labs directly for details about and access to the actual observations.

We apply a further selection criterion during the assimilation to exclude non-marine boundary layer (MBL) and non-deep Southern Hemisphere observations that are very poorly forecasted in our framework. We use the so-called model-data mismatch (MDM) in this process, which is the random error ascribed to each observation to account for measurement errors as well as modeling errors of that observation. We scale the MDM with the amount of available observations per day, to represent both flask samples and quasi-continuous observations with equal weight. We interpret an observed-minus-forecasted (OmF) mole fraction that exceeds 3 times the prescribed model-data mismatch as an indicator that our modeling framework fails. This can happen for instance when an air sample is representative of local exchange not captured well by our 1x1 degree fluxes, when local meteorological conditions are not captured by our offline transport fields, but also when large-scale CO2 exchange is suddenly changed (e.g. fires, pests, droughts) to an extent that can not be accommodated by our flux modules. This last situation would imply an important change in the carbon cycle and has to be recognized by the researchers when analyzing the results. In accordance with the 3-sigma rejection criterion, less than 1% of the observations are discarded through this mechanism in our assimilations.

Table 1 gives a summary of the observing sites used in CarbonTracker and the assimilation performance. Model-data-mismatch ("R") is a value assigned to a given site that is meant to quantify our expected ability to simulate observations there. This value is principally determined from the limitations of the atmospheric transport model. It is part of the standard deviation used to interpret the difference between a simulation first guess ("Hx") of an observation and the actual measured value ("z"). The other component, HPHT is a measure of the ability of the ensemble Kalman filter to improve its simulated value for this observation by adjusting fluxes. These elements together form the innovation χ statistic for the site: χ = (z-Hx)/√(HPHT+r2). The innovation χ2 reported is the mean of all squared χ values for a given site. An average χ2 below 1.0 indicates that the √(HPHT+r2) values are too large. Conversely, values above 1.0 mean that this standard deviation is underestimated. The bias is a statistic of the posterior residuals (final modeled values - measured values). The bias is the mean of these residuals.

Table 1: Summary of observing sites used in CarbonTracker Europe and assimilation performance.
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
ABP surface-flask NOAA Brazil 12°46'S, 38°10'W, 1 masl 101 101 +1.50 +0.41 -0.77± 0.84 -0.30± 0.44 -1.26± 0.87 +0.59 ABP
ABP surface-flask IPEN Brazil 12°46'S, 38°10'W, 1 masl 104 0 +1000.00 +0.43 -1.08± 1.45 -0.60± 1.44 -1.56± 1.29 -99.00 ABP
ABT surface-insitu EC Canada 49° 2'N, 122°22'W, 100 masl 6765 802 +5.19 +13.11 -0.98± 4.19 -0.44± 4.07 -1.50± 4.37 +1.37 ABT
ACG aircraft-pfp NOAA United States Variable 1489 0 +1000.00 +1.17 +0.11± 1.78 +0.21± 2.05 +0.35± 1.23 -99.00 ACG
AIA aircraft-flask CSIRO Australia 40°32'S, 144°18'E, 0 masl 63 0 +1000.00 +0.14 +0.23± 0.53 +0.23± 0.53 +nan± nan -99.00 AIA
ALT surface-flask NOAA Canada 82°27'N, 62°30'W, 200 masl 823 0 +1000.00 +0.48 +0.20± 0.77 +0.02± 0.96 +0.37± 0.65 -99.00 ALT
ALT surface-flask CSIRO Canada 82°27'N, 62°30'W, 200 masl 509 0 +1000.00 +0.47 +0.25± 0.78 +0.10± 0.88 +0.45± 0.71 -99.00 ALT
ALT surface-flask SIO Canada 82°27'N, 62°30'W, 200 masl 348 0 +1000.00 +0.49 +0.41± 0.75 +0.23± 0.89 +0.55± 0.68 -99.00 ALT
ALT surface-insitu EC Canada 82°27'N, 62°30'W, 200 masl 111251 13786 +2.59 +0.47 +0.21± 0.76 +0.09± 0.90 +0.29± 0.71 +0.14 ALT
AMS surface-insitu LSCE France 37°48'S, 77°32'E, 55 masl 4900 4900 +2.85 +0.26 -0.10± 0.46 +0.10± 0.36 -0.55± 0.41 +0.04 AMS
AMT surface-pfp NOAA United States 45° 2'N, 68°41'W, 53 masl 914 0 +1000.00 +4.12 -0.12± 2.88 +0.29± 3.84 -0.34± 2.14 -99.00 AMT
AMT tower-insitu NOAA United States 45° 2'N, 68°41'W, 53 masl 78736 12922 +7.83 +7.79 +0.06± 2.88 +0.48± 3.79 -0.21± 2.14 +0.17 AMT
AOA aircraft-flask JMA Japan Variable 1123 0 +1000.00 +0.17 +0.51± 1.01 +0.38± 1.21 +0.69± 0.89 -99.00 AOA
ARA surface-flask CSIRO Australia 23°52'S, 148°28'E, 175 masl 22 0 +1000.00 +1.46 -1.10± 3.06 -0.06± 2.96 -0.29± 1.97 -99.00 ARA
ASC surface-flask NOAA United Kingdom 7°58'S, 14°24'W, 85 masl 1269 1269 +0.75 +0.18 -0.07± 0.74 +0.25± 0.65 -0.33± 0.73 +1.05 ASC
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
ASK surface-flask NOAA Algeria 23°16'N, 5°38'E, 2710 masl 655 655 +0.75 +0.13 +0.01± 0.59 -0.09± 0.57 +0.13± 0.60 +0.64 ASK
AZR surface-flask NOAA Portugal 38°46'N, 27°23'W, 19 masl 400 396 +1.50 +0.45 +0.36± 1.29 +0.47± 1.42 +0.41± 1.23 +0.83 AZR
BAL surface-flask NOAA Poland 55°21'N, 17°13'E, 3 masl 976 964 +5.02 +4.40 -0.61± 3.47 -0.91± 3.69 -0.34± 3.29 +0.47 BAL
BAO surface-pfp NOAA United States 40° 3'N, 105° 0'W, 1584 masl 2134 0 +1000.00 +1.34 -1.22± 3.32 -1.09± 3.75 -1.42± 2.99 -99.00 BAO
BAO tower-insitu NOAA United States 40° 3'N, 105° 0'W, 1584 masl 59794 9166 +5.89 +4.74 -1.30± 3.19 -1.01± 2.76 -1.63± 3.49 +0.39 BAO
BCK surface-insitu EC Canada 62°48'N, 116° 3'W, 179 masl 33017 4113 +5.17 +3.21 +0.20± 1.85 +0.15± 2.65 +0.28± 1.24 +0.19 BCK
BGI aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 42°49'N, 94°25'W, 355 masl 357 0 +1000.00 +2.77 +0.16± 2.50 +0.29± 3.32 +0.20± 1.45 -99.00 BGI
BHD surface-flask NOAA New Zealand 41°24'S, 174°52'E, 85 masl 197 197 +0.75 +0.23 +0.18± 0.65 +0.50± 0.70 -0.05± 0.57 +0.96 BHD
BHD surface-insitu NIWA New Zealand 41°24'S, 174°52'E, 85 masl 481 481 +0.79 +0.19 +0.28± 0.49 +0.45± 0.46 +0.12± 0.46 +0.58 BHD
BKT surface-flask NOAA Indonesia 0°12'S, 100°19'E, 845 masl 319 0 +1000.00 +0.89 +3.00± 4.09 +2.90± 4.61 +3.14± 3.81 -99.00 BKT
BME surface-flask NOAA United Kingdom 32°22'N, 64°39'W, 12 masl 236 230 +1.50 +0.54 +0.54± 1.26 +1.13± 1.21 +0.25± 1.28 +0.92 BME
BMW surface-flask NOAA United Kingdom 32°16'N, 64°53'W, 30 masl 502 498 +1.51 +0.60 +0.63± 1.10 +0.62± 1.02 +0.62± 1.09 +0.77 BMW
BNE aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 40°48'N, 97°11'W, 465 masl 1080 0 +1000.00 +2.27 +0.07± 3.40 +0.27± 3.81 +0.43± 1.66 -99.00 BNE
BRA surface-insitu EC Canada 51°12'N, 104°42'W, 595 masl 32795 4125 +5.18 +6.86 -0.14± 2.40 +0.11± 3.29 -0.19± 2.00 +0.35 BRA
BRW surface-flask NOAA United States 71°19'N, 156°37'W, 11 masl 864 0 +1000.00 +1.20 +0.13± 1.45 +0.12± 2.03 +0.18± 1.07 -99.00 BRW
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
BRW surface-insitu NOAA United States 71°19'N, 156°37'W, 11 masl 119410 11190 +2.67 +1.43 +0.27± 0.76 +0.28± 1.00 +0.26± 0.65 +0.22 BRW
BSC surface-flask NOAA Romania 44°11'N, 28°40'E, 0 masl 434 0 +1000.00 +4.01 -6.31± 9.28 -10.51±11.08 -3.98± 6.95 -99.00 BSC
CAR aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 40°22'N, 104°18'W, 1740 masl 5102 0 +1000.00 +0.45 +0.41± 1.04 +0.20± 1.31 +0.60± 0.75 -99.00 CAR
CBA surface-flask NOAA United States 55°13'N, 162°43'W, 21 masl 997 955 +1.51 +0.51 -0.33± 1.40 +0.57± 1.64 -0.77± 0.98 +1.02 CBA
CBA surface-flask SIO United States 55°13'N, 162°43'W, 21 masl 313 0 +1000.00 +0.53 +0.19± 1.88 +1.14± 2.57 -0.21± 1.03 -99.00 CBA
CBY surface-insitu EC Canada 69° 1'N, 105° 3'W, 35 masl 14337 1785 +5.16 +1.97 +0.42± 1.20 +0.33± 1.44 +0.47± 1.00 +0.10 CBY
CDL surface-insitu EC Canada 53°59'N, 105° 7'W, 600 masl 66546 8260 +5.13 +9.79 +0.08± 2.11 +0.45± 2.85 -0.10± 1.64 +0.26 CDL
CES tower-insitu ECN the Netherlands 51°58'N, 4°56'E, -1 masl 97340 0 +1000.00 +6.03 +1.75±10.01 +1.76± 9.89 +1.72±10.29 -99.00 CES
CES tower-insitu ECN the Netherlands 51°58'N, 4°56'E, -1 masl 97269 15765 +5.87 +3.79 -0.04± 4.16 +0.56± 3.52 -0.51± 4.54 +0.72 CES
CES tower-insitu ECN the Netherlands 51°58'N, 4°56'E, -1 masl 95578 0 +1000.00 +6.53 -3.44±13.66 -5.94±15.56 -1.96±12.48 -99.00 CES
CES tower-insitu ECN the Netherlands 51°58'N, 4°56'E, -1 masl 96668 0 +1000.00 +6.31 -0.00±10.44 -0.43±10.14 +0.26±10.77 -99.00 CES
CFA surface-flask CSIRO Australia 19°17'S, 147° 3'E, 2 masl 302 299 +1.64 +0.59 -0.54± 1.11 -0.12± 1.28 -0.85± 0.91 +0.56 CFA
CGO surface-flask NOAA Australia 40°41'S, 144°41'E, 94 masl 517 517 +0.50 +0.12 +0.12± 0.35 +0.36± 0.29 -0.08± 0.29 +0.57 CGO
CGO surface-flask CSIRO Australia 40°41'S, 144°41'E, 94 masl 762 0 +1000.00 +0.11 +0.10± 0.32 +0.31± 0.26 -0.08± 0.26 -99.00 CGO
CGO surface-flask SIO Australia 40°41'S, 144°41'E, 94 masl 317 0 +1000.00 +0.12 +0.31± 0.34 +0.54± 0.30 +0.11± 0.26 -99.00 CGO
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
CHL surface-insitu EC Canada 58°45'N, 94° 4'W, 29 masl 19945 2498 +5.16 +4.39 +0.18± 1.88 +0.20± 2.53 +0.27± 1.34 +0.17 CHL
CHM surface-insitu EC Canada 49°41'N, 74°18'W, 393 masl 22635 2802 +5.18 +4.05 +0.07± 2.43 +0.74± 3.10 -0.27± 2.11 +0.28 CHM
CHR surface-flask NOAA Republic of Kiribati 1°42'N, 157° 9'W, 0 masl 501 501 +0.75 +0.15 -0.42± 0.57 -0.27± 0.46 -0.50± 0.60 +0.98 CHR
CIB surface-flask NOAA Spain 41°49'N, 4°56'W, 845 masl 255 243 +2.51 +2.96 +0.52± 2.34 +0.45± 2.59 +0.55± 1.98 +0.72 CIB
CMA aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 38°50'N, 74°19'W, 0 masl 2039 0 +1000.00 +2.04 +0.33± 2.67 +0.08± 3.56 +0.46± 1.87 -99.00 CMA
CON aircraft-flask NIES Multiple Variable 3286 0 +1000.00 +0.14 -0.04± 0.76 +0.12± 0.67 -0.13± 0.78 -99.00 CON
CON aircraft-insitu NIES Multiple Variable 297018 0 +1000.00 +0.43 +0.06± 1.78 -0.45± 2.18 +0.18± 1.53 -99.00 CON
CPS surface-insitu EC Canada 49°49'N, 74°59'W, 381 masl 26002 3251 +5.19 +4.42 +0.09± 2.39 +0.36± 3.22 -0.08± 1.63 +0.26 CPS
CPT surface-flask NOAA South Africa 34°21'S, 18°29'E, 230 masl 190 0 +1000.00 +0.27 -0.17± 0.76 +0.00± 0.63 -0.36± 0.82 -99.00 CPT
CPT surface-insitu SAWS South Africa 34°21'S, 18°29'E, 230 masl 99307 99307 +3.41 +0.29 +0.07± 0.58 +0.33± 0.54 -0.11± 0.53 +0.05 CPT
CRI surface-flask CSIRO India 15° 5'N, 73°50'E, 60 masl 147 0 +1000.00 +6.21 -3.54± 6.78 -1.02± 4.21 -5.72± 7.75 -99.00 CRI
CRV aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 64°59'N, 147°36'W, 611 masl 1447 0 +1000.00 +2.49 -1.31± 5.09 -1.68± 5.66 +0.12± 2.25 -99.00 CRV
CRV surface-pfp NOAA United States 64°59'N, 147°36'W, 611 masl 584 573 +2.52 +2.01 +0.09± 1.98 +0.31± 2.62 -0.09± 1.37 +0.68 CRV
CRZ surface-flask NOAA France 46°26'S, 51°51'E, 197 masl 569 569 +0.50 +0.14 +0.13± 0.30 +0.22± 0.27 +0.05± 0.30 +0.43 CRZ
CYA surface-flask CSIRO Australia 66°17'S, 110°31'E, 47 masl 333 333 +0.58 +0.09 -0.05± 0.27 +0.11± 0.27 -0.15± 0.24 +0.27 CYA
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
DND aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 47°30'N, 99°14'W, 472 masl 1702 0 +1000.00 +1.59 +0.21± 1.97 +0.24± 2.90 +0.31± 1.11 -99.00 DND
DRP shipboard-flask NOAA N/A 59° 0'S, 64°41'W, 0 masl 182 182 +0.52 +0.20 +0.03± 0.36 +0.15± 0.38 -0.03± 0.33 +0.55 DRP
EGB surface-insitu EC Canada 44°14'N, 79°47'W, 251 masl 74853 9334 +5.19 +9.78 +0.03± 2.97 +0.36± 3.44 -0.22± 2.61 +0.48 EGB
EIC surface-flask NOAA Chile 27°10'S, 109°26'W, 47 masl 448 448 +1.50 +0.11 +0.35± 1.07 +0.82± 0.87 -0.05± 0.99 +0.57 EIC
ESP aircraft-pfp NOAA Canada 49°23'N, 126°33'W, 7 masl 3279 0 +1000.00 +2.82 +0.07± 2.79 -0.14± 4.08 +0.22± 1.38 -99.00 ESP
ESP surface-flask CSIRO Canada 49°23'N, 126°33'W, 7 masl 23 0 +1000.00 +0.88 +0.05± 1.29 +0.47± 0.67 -0.79± 1.35 -99.00 ESP
ESP surface-insitu EC Canada 49°23'N, 126°33'W, 7 masl 44437 5530 +5.19 +3.87 +0.07± 2.03 +0.36± 2.34 +0.10± 1.64 +0.20 ESP
EST surface-insitu EC Canada 51°40'N, 110°12'W, 707 masl 38993 4878 +5.18 +5.62 +0.03± 2.35 +0.49± 2.75 -0.18± 2.16 +0.31 EST
ETL aircraft-pfp NOAA Canada 54°21'N, 104°59'W, 492 masl 2416 0 +1000.00 +1.28 +0.21± 1.63 +0.45± 2.29 +0.19± 1.06 -99.00 ETL
ETL surface-insitu EC Canada 54°21'N, 104°59'W, 492 masl 75034 9356 +5.14 +7.27 +0.03± 1.95 +0.28± 2.58 -0.08± 1.50 +0.21 ETL
FNE surface-insitu EC Canada 58°50'N, 122°34'W, 361 masl 3972 417 +5.20 +9.13 -0.74± 4.20 +0.19± 4.05 -1.10± 4.10 +1.21 FNE
FSD surface-insitu EC Canada 49°53'N, 81°34'W, 210 masl 113321 14246 +5.14 +6.44 +0.19± 2.14 +0.57± 2.85 -0.01± 1.47 +0.25 FSD
FTL aircraft-pfp NOAA Brazil 3°31'S, 38°17'W, 3 masl 160 0 +1000.00 +0.25 -0.48± 1.31 +0.13± 1.33 -1.03± 0.90 -99.00 FTL
FWI aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 44°40'N, 90°58'W, 334 masl 378 0 +1000.00 +2.52 +0.03± 3.23 -0.27± 4.09 +0.73± 2.51 -99.00 FWI
GMI surface-flask NOAA Guam 13°23'N, 144°39'E, 0 masl 924 924 +0.75 +0.09 +0.24± 0.82 +0.23± 0.91 +0.34± 0.70 +1.33 GMI
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
GPA surface-flask CSIRO Australia 12°15'S, 131° 3'E, 25 masl 51 0 +1000.00 +0.99 +1.20± 3.07 +1.15± 3.25 +1.20± 2.63 -99.00 GPA
HAA aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 21°14'N, 158°57'W, 3 masl 1778 0 +1000.00 +0.11 +0.41± 0.81 +0.36± 0.85 +0.47± 0.73 -99.00 HAA
HBA surface-flask NOAA United Kingdom 75°36'S, 26°13'W, 30 masl 647 647 +0.50 +0.13 +0.10± 0.25 +0.27± 0.23 -0.01± 0.21 +0.32 HBA
HDP surface-insitu NCAR United States 40°34'N, 111°39'W, 3351 masl 53195 53194 +7.01 +0.36 -0.15± 1.23 -0.29± 1.50 -0.10± 1.03 +0.04 HDP
HEI surface-insitu UHEI-IUP Germany 49°25'N, 8°40'E, 116 masl 100021 0 +1000.00 +7.15 -7.47±14.93 -7.72±13.23 -7.30±16.09 -99.00 HEI
HFM aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 42°32'N, 72°10'W, 340 masl 1609 0 +1000.00 +2.10 +0.43± 2.66 +0.22± 3.77 +0.34± 1.57 -99.00 HFM
HIL aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 40° 4'N, 87°55'W, 201 masl 2065 0 +1000.00 +2.28 -0.27± 2.95 -0.68± 4.23 +0.08± 1.75 -99.00 HIL
HIP aircraft-insitu HU United States Variable 130016 0 +1000.00 +0.47 +0.04± 1.24 +0.18± 1.32 -0.10± 1.13 -99.00 HIP
HNP surface-insitu EC Canada 43°37'N, 79°23'W, 87 masl 4318 510 +5.19 +13.10 +0.43± 3.56 +0.08± 4.05 +0.57± 3.09 +0.72 HNP
HPB surface-flask NOAA Germany 47°48'N, 11° 1'E, 936 masl 379 372 +5.00 +4.33 +1.25± 4.10 +1.94± 4.06 +0.72± 4.06 +0.75 HPB
HUN surface-flask NOAA Hungary 46°57'N, 16°39'E, 248 masl 702 0 +1000.00 +7.08 -0.29± 5.26 +0.34± 4.38 -0.59± 6.02 -99.00 HUN
HUN tower-insitu HMS Hungary 46°57'N, 16°39'E, 248 masl 108610 0 +1000.00 +10.93 -7.59±16.51 -12.35±21.61 -3.73±10.42 -99.00 HUN
HUN tower-insitu HMS Hungary 46°57'N, 16°39'E, 248 masl 109990 17870 +5.98 +9.89 +0.03± 3.66 +0.48± 3.29 -0.23± 3.90 +0.63 HUN
HUN tower-insitu HMS Hungary 46°57'N, 16°39'E, 248 masl 112023 0 +1000.00 +10.57 -2.73± 9.93 -4.32±11.88 -1.25± 8.04 -99.00 HUN
HUN tower-insitu HMS Hungary 46°57'N, 16°39'E, 248 masl 108599 0 +1000.00 +10.18 -0.89± 8.42 -1.48± 9.82 -0.21± 7.20 -99.00 HUN
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
ICE surface-flask NOAA Iceland 63°24'N, 20°17'W, 118 masl 656 656 +0.75 +0.41 -0.44± 1.20 -0.15± 1.19 -0.58± 1.16 +3.05 ICE
INU surface-insitu EC Canada 68°19'N, 133°32'W, 113 masl 24741 3094 +5.19 +3.59 +0.08± 1.82 +0.24± 2.33 +0.03± 1.40 +0.18 INU
INX aircraft-pfp NOAA United States Variable 250 0 +1000.00 +5.14 -1.70± 5.44 -2.79± 7.64 -1.60± 4.43 -99.00 INX
INX surface-pfp NOAA United States Variable 1127 0 +1000.00 +8.08 -0.25± 9.33 +0.71±12.42 -1.06± 7.31 -99.00 INX
IZO surface-flask NOAA Spain 28°19'N, 16°30'W, 2372 masl 594 0 +1000.00 +0.15 +0.63± 0.99 +0.60± 0.95 +0.67± 1.02 -99.00 IZO
IZO surface-insitu AEMET Spain 28°19'N, 16°30'W, 2372 masl 107971 56648 +2.56 +0.15 +0.10± 0.76 +0.05± 0.82 +0.14± 0.76 +0.10 IZO
JFJ surface-insitu KUP Switzerland 46°33'N, 7°59'E, 3570 masl 72846 12076 +2.99 +0.77 +0.32± 1.64 +0.50± 1.45 +0.18± 1.78 +0.36 JFJ
JFJ surface-insitu EMPA Switzerland 46°33'N, 7°59'E, 3570 masl 31585 5236 +2.96 +0.79 +0.30± 1.42 +0.37± 1.26 +0.24± 1.52 +0.31 JFJ
KAS surface-insitu AGH Poland 49°14'N, 19°59'E, 1989 masl 77012 0 +1000.00 +1.54 +0.01± 4.94 +2.15± 4.96 -1.62± 4.30 -99.00 KAS
KEY surface-flask NOAA United States 25°40'N, 80° 9'W, 1 masl 498 494 +1.50 +0.79 +0.09± 0.92 +0.25± 0.83 -0.04± 1.01 +0.40 KEY
KUM surface-flask NOAA United States 19°31'N, 154°49'W, 3 masl 902 902 +0.89 +0.11 -0.01± 0.97 -0.07± 1.01 +0.09± 0.98 +1.34 KUM
KUM surface-flask SIO United States 19°31'N, 154°49'W, 3 masl 507 0 +1000.00 +0.11 +0.06± 1.14 +0.03± 1.17 +0.13± 1.21 -99.00 KUM
KZD surface-flask NOAA Kazakhstan 44° 5'N, 76°52'E, 595 masl 441 426 +2.50 +2.25 -0.32± 2.47 -0.86± 2.76 +0.01± 2.06 +1.03 KZD
KZM surface-flask NOAA Kazakhstan 43°15'N, 77°53'E, 2519 masl 393 392 +2.50 +0.89 +0.20± 2.22 +0.86± 2.11 -0.54± 1.83 +0.84 KZM
LEF aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 45°57'N, 90°16'W, 472 masl 2967 0 +1000.00 +2.73 -0.03± 2.39 -0.06± 3.31 +0.15± 1.52 -99.00 LEF
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
LEF surface-pfp NOAA United States 45°57'N, 90°16'W, 472 masl 2448 0 +1000.00 +4.53 -0.11± 3.66 +0.33± 5.30 -0.19± 2.26 -99.00 LEF
LEF tower-insitu NOAA United States 45°57'N, 90°16'W, 472 masl 115810 19169 +5.98 +4.40 +0.09± 2.39 +0.41± 3.07 -0.07± 1.80 +0.26 LEF
LJO surface-flask SIO United States 32°52'N, 117°15'W, 10 masl 307 303 +5.03 +0.84 +4.12± 2.61 +5.79± 2.80 +3.14± 1.99 +1.00 LJO
LLB surface-flask NOAA Canada 54°57'N, 112°27'W, 540 masl 159 0 +1000.00 +4.91 +0.12± 5.00 +0.95± 5.82 -0.14± 4.87 -99.00 LLB
LLB surface-insitu EC Canada 54°57'N, 112°27'W, 540 masl 59417 7351 +5.16 +6.95 -0.37± 2.97 +0.20± 3.38 -0.62± 2.72 +0.50 LLB
LMP surface-flask NOAA Italy 35°31'N, 12°37'E, 45 masl 337 331 +1.50 +1.35 +0.53± 1.36 +0.04± 1.45 +0.86± 1.18 +0.99 LMP
LUT surface-insitu RUG Netherlands 53°24'N, 6°21'E, 1 masl 51843 8651 +9.91 +6.64 -0.55± 4.76 -0.05± 4.22 -0.81± 5.04 +0.33 LUT
MAA surface-flask CSIRO Australia 67°37'S, 62°52'E, 32 masl 356 356 +0.58 +0.09 -0.03± 0.29 +0.16± 0.28 -0.16± 0.23 +0.30 MAA
MEX surface-flask NOAA Mexico 18°59'N, 97°19'W, 4464 masl 242 242 +2.50 +0.40 +0.83± 1.59 +1.49± 1.58 +0.22± 1.13 +0.50 MEX
MHD surface-flask NOAA Ireland 53°20'N, 9°54'W, 5 masl 585 580 +1.50 +0.69 +0.33± 0.97 +0.66± 1.08 +0.15± 0.92 +0.50 MHD
MHD surface-insitu LSCE Ireland 53°20'N, 9°54'W, 5 masl 41109 41050 +7.28 +1.53 -0.22± 2.75 -0.15± 3.51 -0.26± 2.11 +0.19 MHD
MID surface-flask NOAA United States 28°13'N, 177°23'W, 11 masl 686 686 +1.50 +0.21 +0.63± 0.92 +0.97± 0.97 +0.50± 0.89 +0.60 MID
MKN surface-flask NOAA Kenya 0° 4'S, 37°18'E, 3644 masl 138 138 +2.50 +0.22 +1.65± 1.95 +2.35± 2.23 +1.32± 1.50 +1.04 MKN
MLO surface-flask NOAA United States 19°32'N, 155°35'W, 3397 masl 1090 0 +1000.00 +0.11 +0.13± 0.59 +0.05± 0.65 +0.21± 0.56 -99.00 MLO
MLO surface-flask CSIRO United States 19°32'N, 155°35'W, 3397 masl 483 0 +1000.00 +0.10 +0.20± 0.67 +0.00± 0.55 +0.41± 0.73 -99.00 MLO
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
MLO surface-flask SIO United States 19°32'N, 155°35'W, 3397 masl 558 0 +1000.00 +0.10 +0.29± 0.64 +0.14± 0.59 +0.41± 0.70 -99.00 MLO
MLO surface-insitu NOAA United States 19°32'N, 155°35'W, 3397 masl 119104 14714 +1.42 +0.10 +0.19± 0.55 -0.06± 0.49 +0.36± 0.54 +0.21 MLO
MNM surface-insitu JMA Japan 24°17'N, 153°59'E, 8 masl 102234 0 +1000.00 +0.21 +0.30± 0.76 +0.22± 0.80 +0.47± 0.73 -99.00 MNM
MQA surface-flask CSIRO Australia 54°29'S, 158°58'E, 6 masl 440 440 +0.58 +0.14 +0.04± 0.38 +0.23± 0.39 -0.08± 0.33 +0.51 MQA
NAT surface-flask NOAA Brazil 5°31'S, 35°16'W, 15 masl 171 171 +2.50 +0.15 -0.64± 1.05 -0.56± 1.07 -0.71± 1.04 +0.25 NAT
NAT surface-flask IPEN Brazil 5°31'S, 35°16'W, 15 masl 89 0 +1000.00 +0.14 -0.52± 1.19 -0.45± 1.23 -0.48± 1.20 -99.00 NAT
NHA aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 42°57'N, 70°38'W, 0 masl 2910 0 +1000.00 +1.83 +0.38± 2.42 +0.48± 3.41 +0.36± 1.83 -99.00 NHA
NMB surface-flask NOAA Namibia 23°35'S, 15° 2'E, 456 masl 295 295 +1.50 +0.54 -0.24± 1.05 +0.21± 1.01 -0.73± 0.90 +0.60 NMB
NWR surface-flask NOAA United States 40° 3'N, 105°35'W, 3523 masl 669 0 +1000.00 +0.47 +0.54± 1.22 +1.29± 1.35 +0.16± 0.90 -99.00 NWR
NWR surface-insitu NCAR United States 40° 3'N, 105°35'W, 3523 masl 61718 61717 +11.67 +0.49 +0.12± 1.41 +0.19± 1.84 +0.17± 1.09 +0.02 NWR
NWR surface-pfp NOAA United States 40° 3'N, 105°35'W, 3523 masl 1841 0 +1000.00 +0.56 +0.76± 1.76 +1.37± 2.27 +0.41± 1.21 -99.00 NWR
OBN surface-flask NOAA Russia 55° 7'N, 36°36'E, 183 masl 133 133 +5.03 +3.63 +0.13± 3.70 -0.66± 4.09 +0.77± 3.56 +0.60 OBN
OIL aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 41°17'N, 88°56'W, 192 masl 424 0 +1000.00 +2.14 +0.64± 2.28 +0.71± 3.04 +0.44± 1.36 -99.00 OIL
OTA surface-flask CSIRO Australia 38°31'S, 142°49'E, 40 masl 139 0 +1000.00 +0.30 -1.43±19.80 -1.72±13.00 +2.49±17.59 -99.00 OTA
OXK surface-flask NOAA Germany 50° 2'N, 11°49'E, 1009 masl 319 319 +5.00 +1.74 -0.07± 3.58 +0.41± 3.83 -0.73± 3.41 +0.55 OXK
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
PAL surface-flask NOAA Finland 67°58'N, 24° 7'E, 560 masl 541 0 +1000.00 +2.54 -0.12± 2.43 +0.11± 3.10 -0.18± 2.01 -99.00 PAL
PAL surface-insitu FMI Finland 67°58'N, 24° 7'E, 560 masl 25459 0 +1000.00 +2.89 -0.16± 2.17 +0.07± 2.86 -0.16± 1.97 -99.00 PAL
PAL surface-insitu FMI Finland 67°58'N, 24° 7'E, 560 masl 22553 0 +1000.00 +1.46 +0.12± 1.22 +0.49± 1.66 +0.01± 0.98 -99.00 PAL
PAL surface-insitu FMI Finland 67°58'N, 24° 7'E, 560 masl 84326 84323 +10.73 +2.44 +0.01± 1.86 +0.36± 2.43 -0.09± 1.59 +0.05 PAL
PFA aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 65° 4'N, 147°17'W, 210 masl 3523 0 +1000.00 +1.01 +0.16± 1.68 +0.44± 2.40 +0.12± 1.19 -99.00 PFA
POC shipboard-flask NOAA N/A Variable 2169 2164 +0.88 +0.27 -0.07± 0.62 +0.08± 0.63 -0.15± 0.62 +0.72 POC
PSA surface-flask NOAA United States 64°55'S, 64° 0'W, 10 masl 722 722 +0.50 +0.27 -0.01± 0.31 +0.07± 0.30 -0.04± 0.28 +0.40 PSA
PSA surface-flask SIO United States 64°55'S, 64° 0'W, 10 masl 350 0 +1000.00 +0.27 +0.17± 0.34 +0.30± 0.28 +0.09± 0.33 -99.00 PSA
PTA surface-flask NOAA United States 38°57'N, 123°44'W, 17 masl 398 394 +5.01 +2.65 -2.35± 3.46 -1.81± 3.38 -2.44± 3.50 +0.70 PTA
PUY surface-insitu LSCE France 45°46'N, 2°58'E, 1465 masl 24990 4167 +4.99 +2.47 -0.75± 2.77 -0.74± 3.22 -0.74± 2.21 +0.42 PUY
RBA surface-insitu NCAR United States 36°28'N, 109° 6'W, 2982 masl 20181 20181 +11.77 +0.36 +0.17± 1.02 -0.09± 1.25 +0.33± 0.83 +0.01 RBA
RPB surface-flask NOAA Barbados 13°10'N, 59°26'W, 15 masl 690 690 +1.50 +0.29 +0.00± 0.69 +0.46± 0.63 -0.20± 0.58 +0.22 RPB
RTA aircraft-pfp NOAA Cook Islands 21°15'S, 159°50'W, 3 masl 2194 0 +1000.00 +0.11 -0.13± 0.68 +0.15± 0.49 -0.35± 0.74 -99.00 RTA
RYO surface-insitu JMA Japan 39° 2'N, 141°49'E, 260 masl 62540 0 +1000.00 +1.33 -0.35± 2.35 +0.28± 3.63 -0.27± 1.68 -99.00 RYO
SAN aircraft-pfp NOAA Brazil 2°51'S, 54°57'W, 78 masl 322 322 +8.00 +0.58 -0.06± 2.77 -1.09± 2.91 +0.79± 2.70 +0.13 SAN
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
SAN aircraft-pfp IPEN Brazil 2°51'S, 54°57'W, 78 masl 1641 1641 +8.13 +0.59 -0.21± 2.38 -0.33± 2.61 -0.06± 2.26 +0.09 SAN
SCA aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 32°46'N, 79°33'W, 0 masl 2288 0 +1000.00 +1.24 +0.13± 2.12 -0.03± 2.51 +0.15± 1.91 -99.00 SCA
SCT surface-pfp NOAA United States 33°24'N, 81°50'W, 115 masl 1453 0 +1000.00 +4.15 -0.32± 3.89 -0.20± 3.97 -0.58± 3.98 -99.00 SCT
SCT tower-insitu NOAA United States 33°24'N, 81°50'W, 115 masl 51664 8565 +5.98 +5.46 +0.17± 3.31 +0.20± 3.83 +0.00± 2.97 +0.44 SCT
SEY surface-flask NOAA Seychelles 4°41'S, 55°32'E, 2 masl 644 644 +0.75 +0.18 -0.15± 0.75 +0.04± 0.53 -0.36± 0.87 +1.10 SEY
SGP aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 36°36'N, 97°29'W, 314 masl 5157 0 +1000.00 +2.37 +0.21± 2.37 -0.17± 2.79 +0.57± 1.62 -99.00 SGP
SGP surface-flask NOAA United States 36°36'N, 97°29'W, 314 masl 584 561 +3.00 +4.64 -0.10± 2.33 -0.46± 2.74 +0.17± 2.04 +0.57 SGP
SGP surface-insitu LBNL-ARM United States 36°36'N, 97°29'W, 314 masl 81033 13360 +5.98 +9.96 +0.06± 2.68 -0.09± 3.03 +0.09± 2.41 +0.34 SGP
SHM surface-flask NOAA United States 52°43'N, 174° 8'E, 23 masl 492 490 +2.50 +0.51 +0.08± 1.96 +1.76± 2.22 -0.86± 1.04 +0.74 SHM
SIS surface-flask CSIRO Scotland 60° 5'N, 1°15'W, 30 masl 89 88 +1.51 +0.45 +0.67± 0.95 +1.40± 1.01 +0.21± 0.67 +0.77 SIS
SMO surface-flask NOAA American Samoa 14°15'S, 170°34'W, 42 masl 1161 0 +1000.00 +0.11 -0.18± 0.57 +0.17± 0.38 -0.51± 0.53 -99.00 SMO
SMO surface-flask SIO American Samoa 14°15'S, 170°34'W, 42 masl 408 0 +1000.00 +0.11 -0.13± 0.74 +0.19± 0.68 -0.41± 0.71 -99.00 SMO
SMO surface-insitu NOAA American Samoa 14°15'S, 170°34'W, 42 masl 114758 15361 +1.41 +0.10 -0.12± 0.52 +0.25± 0.35 -0.46± 0.45 +0.18 SMO
SNP tower-insitu NOAA United States 38°37'N, 78°21'W, 1008 masl 45495 7504 +7.97 +3.61 +0.13± 4.20 +1.99± 4.87 -1.00± 3.38 +0.41 SNP
SPL surface-insitu NCAR United States 40°27'N, 106°44'W, 3210 masl 61206 61200 +6.99 +0.51 -0.42± 1.62 -0.19± 2.04 -0.60± 1.32 +0.07 SPL
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
SPO surface-flask NOAA United States 89°59'S, 24°48'W, 2810 masl 774 0 +1000.00 +0.08 +0.11± 0.27 +0.35± 0.20 -0.05± 0.21 -99.00 SPO
SPO surface-flask CSIRO United States 89°59'S, 24°48'W, 2810 masl 147 0 +1000.00 +0.08 -0.04± 0.26 +0.14± 0.25 -0.18± 0.20 -99.00 SPO
SPO surface-flask SIO United States 89°59'S, 24°48'W, 2810 masl 346 0 +1000.00 +0.09 +0.13± 0.28 +0.36± 0.23 -0.03± 0.22 -99.00 SPO
SPO surface-insitu NOAA United States 89°59'S, 24°48'W, 2810 masl 122079 20070 +0.98 +0.09 +0.03± 0.26 +0.25± 0.20 -0.13± 0.19 +0.08 SPO
SSL surface-insitu UBA-SCHAU Germany 47°55'N, 7°55'E, 1205 masl 121836 20192 +4.99 +2.75 -0.56± 2.86 -0.57± 3.25 -0.43± 2.55 +0.51 SSL
STM surface-flask NOAA Norway 66° 0'N, 2° 0'E, 0 masl 853 850 +1.50 +0.86 +0.23± 1.03 +0.45± 1.07 +0.13± 0.98 +0.60 STM
STR surface-pfp NOAA United States 37°45'N, 122°27'W, 254 masl 3043 1365 +3.04 +1.94 +0.08± 2.26 +0.29± 2.39 -0.04± 2.23 +0.53 STR
SUM surface-flask NOAA Greenland 72°36'N, 38°25'W, 3209 masl 624 624 +0.75 +0.24 +0.25± 0.73 +0.45± 0.82 +0.14± 0.68 +1.17 SUM
SYO surface-flask NOAA Japan 69° 1'S, 39°35'E, 14 masl 347 347 +0.50 +0.10 -0.01± 0.26 +0.18± 0.23 -0.14± 0.21 +0.31 SYO
SYO surface-insitu TU Japan 69° 1'S, 39°35'E, 14 masl 5419 0 +1000.00 +0.10 -0.04± 0.23 +0.13± 0.22 -0.14± 0.19 -99.00 SYO
TAP surface-flask NOAA Republic of Korea 36°44'N, 126° 8'E, 16 masl 597 595 +5.50 +1.65 -0.02± 3.51 +0.82± 4.38 -0.37± 2.62 +0.46 TAP
TGC aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 27°44'N, 96°52'W, 0 masl 2086 0 +1000.00 +0.75 +0.23± 1.43 +0.18± 1.36 +0.37± 1.37 -99.00 TGC
THD aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 41° 3'N, 124° 9'W, 107 masl 1591 0 +1000.00 +2.03 +0.23± 2.55 -0.07± 2.24 +0.46± 2.73 -99.00 THD
THD surface-flask NOAA United States 41° 3'N, 124° 9'W, 107 masl 565 562 +5.09 +2.20 -1.90± 3.51 -2.34± 3.89 -1.46± 3.09 +0.64 THD
TPD surface-insitu EC Canada 42°37'N, 80°33'W, 231 masl 18132 2219 +5.19 +14.92 +0.16± 3.06 +0.34± 3.99 +0.07± 2.37 +0.61 TPD
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
ULB aircraft-pfp NOAA Mongolia 47°24'N, 106° 0'E, 1350 masl 517 517 +6.67 +0.71 +0.42± 1.59 +0.85± 2.20 +0.38± 1.29 +0.07 ULB
USH surface-flask NOAA Argentina 54°51'S, 68°19'W, 12 masl 351 351 +0.75 +0.17 -0.26± 0.55 -0.27± 0.46 -0.18± 0.57 +0.66 USH
UTA surface-flask NOAA United States 39°54'N, 113°43'W, 1327 masl 649 646 +2.50 +1.62 +0.29± 1.89 +0.81± 1.99 -0.19± 1.65 +0.63 UTA
UUM surface-flask NOAA Mongolia 44°27'N, 111° 6'E, 1007 masl 690 656 +2.50 +1.06 -0.16± 2.48 -0.64± 2.70 +0.31± 2.09 +1.09 UUM
WAO surface-insitu UEA United Kingdom 52°57'N, 1° 7'E, 20 masl 23679 3785 +9.60 +4.64 +0.93± 4.36 +0.80± 4.82 +1.14± 4.05 +0.29 WAO
WBI aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 41°43'N, 91°21'W, 241 masl 1644 0 +1000.00 +2.77 +0.15± 2.43 -0.33± 3.22 +0.50± 1.43 -99.00 WBI
WBI surface-pfp NOAA United States 41°43'N, 91°21'W, 241 masl 1785 0 +1000.00 +6.38 -0.47± 3.93 -0.71± 5.34 -0.35± 2.68 -99.00 WBI
WBI tower-insitu NOAA United States 41°43'N, 91°21'W, 241 masl 58271 9566 +5.98 +5.82 +0.02± 3.17 +0.33± 4.14 -0.21± 2.45 +0.51 WBI
WGC surface-pfp NOAA United States 38°16'N, 121°29'W, 0 masl 1683 0 +1000.00 +8.71 -2.08± 9.09 +1.13± 8.49 -4.22± 9.33 -99.00 WGC
WGC tower-insitu NOAA United States 38°16'N, 121°29'W, 0 masl 57897 9467 +5.99 +4.76 +0.17± 3.57 +1.09± 2.86 -0.21± 3.93 +0.51 WGC
WIS surface-flask NOAA Israel 29°58'N, 35° 3'E, 151 masl 738 735 +2.50 +0.48 -0.16± 1.94 +0.34± 1.65 -0.32± 1.96 +0.62 WIS
WKT surface-pfp NOAA United States 31°19'N, 97°20'W, 251 masl 1874 0 +1000.00 +3.29 -0.35± 2.91 -0.46± 3.12 -0.25± 2.65 -99.00 WKT
WKT tower-insitu NOAA United States 31°19'N, 97°20'W, 251 masl 89352 14774 +5.98 +2.97 +0.03± 2.48 -0.04± 2.41 +0.07± 2.51 +0.24 WKT
WLG surface-flask NOAA Peoples Republic of China 36°17'N, 100°54'E, 3810 masl 589 576 +1.53 +0.90 +0.04± 1.40 +0.19± 1.46 +0.21± 1.32 +0.89 WLG
WSA surface-insitu EC Canada 43°56'N, 60° 1'W, 5 masl 87000 10873 +5.19 +1.71 +0.26± 2.12 +0.84± 2.71 +0.02± 1.68 +0.22 WSA
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
YON surface-insitu JMA Japan 24°28'N, 123° 1'E, 30 masl 78139 0 +1000.00 +0.39 +0.03± 1.74 +0.22± 1.60 +0.14± 1.74 -99.00 YON
ZEP surface-flask NOAA Norway and Sweden 78°54'N, 11°53'E, 474 masl 757 754 +1.50 +0.48 +0.33± 0.88 +0.49± 0.92 +0.17± 0.88 +0.53 ZEP

3.   Further Reading




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