Wageningen University
& ICOS Netherlands


Documentation - CTE2016
Biosphere Oceans Observations Fires Fossil Fuel TM5 Nested Model Assimilation
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Observations [go to top]
1.   Introduction
The observations of atmospheric CO2 mole fraction by 40 different laboratories are at the heart of CarbonTracker. They inform us on changes in the carbon cycle, whether they are regular (such as the seasonal growth and decay of leaves and trees), or irregular (such as the release of tons of carbon by a wildfire). The results in CarbonTracker depend directly on the quality, amount and location of observations available, and the degree of detail at which we can monitor the carbon cycle reliably increases strongly with the density of our observing network.

2.   Detailed Description
This study uses CO2 observations from in-situ measurements or from air samples collected in flasks at 264 global sites by 40 institutions worldwide. All contributing laboratories are included under collaborators. These observations are included in ObsPack GLOBALVIEWplusv2.1. This ObsPack product contains 264 time series of surface flask samples, quasi-continuous in-situ observations also from towers and aircraft samples. Table 1 and the figure below summarize which time series have been used in our inversion. We assimilate a maximum of 1 time series per site (e.g. not 2 from the same location from different laboratories). Note that all of these observations are calibrated against the same world CO2 scale (WMO-2007).

For most of the quasi-continuous sampling sites, the time series consist of hourly averaged mole fractions. We assimilate only mole fractions from the afternoon hours, recognizing that our atmospheric transport model does not always capture the continental nighttime stability regime while daytime well-mixed conditions are better matched. At mountain-top sites (e.g. MLO, NWR, and SPL), we use the mole fractions from the nighttime hours as this tends to be the most stable time period and avoids periods of upslope flows that contain local vegetative and/or anthropogenic influence. The selection of hourly observations included in the assimilation is based on the flags as set in the ObsPack data sets. A set of coastal sites is moved by one degree into the ocean to force the model sample to be more representative of the actual site conditions (based on Transcom continuous simulations). Table 1 summarizes how data from the different measurement programs are included for this study.

The CO2 data from ObsPack used in CarbonTracker are freely available for download. Users are encouraged to review the literature and contact the measurement labs directly for details about and access to the actual observations.

We apply a further selection criterion during the assimilation to exclude non-marine boundary layer (MBL) and non-deep Southern Hemisphere observations that are very poorly forecasted in our framework. We use the so-called model-data mismatch (MDM) in this process, which is the random error ascribed to each observation to account for measurement errors as well as modeling errors of that observation. We scale the MDM with the amount of available observations per day, to represent both flask samples and quasi-continuous observations with equal weight. We interpret an observed-minus-forecasted (OmF) mole fraction that exceeds 3 times the prescribed model-data mismatch as an indicator that our modeling framework fails. This can happen for instance when an air sample is representative of local exchange not captured well by our 1x1 degree fluxes, when local meteorological conditions are not captured by our offline transport fields, but also when large-scale CO2 exchange is suddenly changed (e.g. fires, pests, droughts) to an extent that can not be accommodated by our flux modules. This last situation would imply an important change in the carbon cycle and has to be recognized by the researchers when analyzing the results. In accordance with the 3-sigma rejection criterion, less than 1% of the observations are discarded through this mechanism in our assimilations.

Table 1 gives a summary of the observing sites used in CarbonTracker and the assimilation performance. Model-data-mismatch ("R") is a value assigned to a given site that is meant to quantify our expected ability to simulate observations there. This value is principally determined from the limitations of the atmospheric transport model. It is part of the standard deviation used to interpret the difference between a simulation first guess ("Hx") of an observation and the actual measured value ("z"). The other component, HPHT is a measure of the ability of the ensemble Kalman filter to improve its simulated value for this observation by adjusting fluxes. These elements together form the innovation χ statistic for the site: χ = (z-Hx)/√(HPHT+r2). The innovation χ2 reported is the mean of all squared χ values for a given site. An average χ2 below 1.0 indicates that the √(HPHT+r2) values are too large. Conversely, values above 1.0 mean that this standard deviation is underestimated. The bias is a statistic of the posterior residuals (final modeled values - measured values). The bias is the mean of these residuals.

Table 1: Summary of observing sites used in CarbonTracker Europe and assimilation performance.
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
ABP surface-flask NOAA Brazil 12°46'S, 38°10'W, 1 masl 101 101 +1.50 +0.41 -0.74± 0.81 -0.25± 0.40 -1.27± 0.82 +0.61 ABP
ABP surface-flask IPEN Brazil 12°46'S, 38°10'W, 1 masl 104 0 +1000.00 +0.43 -1.08± 1.48 -0.57± 1.52 -1.59± 1.29 -99.00 ABP
ABT surface-insitu EC Canada 49° 2'N, 122°22'W, 100 masl 14759 0 +1000.00 +15.13 -4.07±24.14 -11.47±18.88 +1.74±23.98 -99.00 ABT
ACG aircraft-pfp NOAA United States Variable 1545 0 +1000.00 +1.18 -0.02± 1.80 +0.06± 2.11 +0.17± 1.18 -99.00 ACG
AIA aircraft-flask CSIRO Australia 40°32'S, 144°18'E, 0 masl 63 0 +1000.00 +0.15 +0.29± 0.55 +0.29± 0.55 +nan± nan -99.00 AIA
ALF aircraft-pfp IPEN Brazil Variable 684 0 +1000.00 +0.79 -0.75± 2.64 -0.38± 2.36 -0.71± 2.65 -99.00 ALF
ALT surface-flask NOAA Canada 82°27'N, 62°30'W, 190 masl 874 0 +1000.00 +0.48 +0.04± 0.66 -0.02± 0.81 +0.12± 0.60 -99.00 ALT
ALT surface-flask CSIRO Canada 82°27'N, 62°30'W, 190 masl 554 0 +1000.00 +0.47 +0.10± 0.67 +0.05± 0.73 +0.19± 0.66 -99.00 ALT
ALT surface-flask SIO_co2 Canada 82°27'N, 62°30'W, 190 masl 697 0 +1000.00 +0.49 -0.82± 6.78 -0.31± 1.55 -1.36± 9.50 -99.00 ALT
ALT surface-flask SIO Canada 82°27'N, 62°30'W, 190 masl 365 0 +1000.00 +0.49 +0.23± 0.65 +0.17± 0.78 +0.30± 0.62 -99.00 ALT
ALT surface-insitu EC Canada 82°27'N, 62°30'W, 190 masl 122874 18359 +1.47 +0.46 +0.07± 0.60 +0.05± 0.71 +0.10± 0.55 +0.32 ALT
AMS surface-insitu LSCE France 37°48'S, 77°32'E, 55 masl 5336 0 +1000.00 +0.26 -0.12± 0.57 +0.20± 0.36 -0.75± 0.49 -99.00 AMS
AMT surface-pfp NOAA United States 45° 2'N, 68°41'W, 53 masl 1039 0 +1000.00 +4.14 -0.27± 2.53 +0.02± 3.43 -0.41± 1.86 -99.00 AMT
AMT tower-insitu NOAA United States 45° 2'N, 68°41'W, 53 masl 87073 14122 +5.88 +7.86 +0.01± 2.47 +0.39± 3.23 -0.22± 1.84 +0.26 AMT
AOA aircraft-flask JMA Japan Variable 1411 0 +1000.00 +0.17 +0.42± 1.02 +0.28± 1.14 +0.62± 0.98 -99.00 AOA
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
ARA surface-flask CSIRO Australia 23°52'S, 148°28'E, 175 masl 22 0 +1000.00 +1.46 -0.93± 3.76 +0.76± 4.23 -0.78± 1.14 -99.00 ARA
ARCPAC2008 aircraft-insitu NOAA-CSD United States Variable 22588 0 +1000.00 +0.97 -0.02± 8.55 +nan± nan -0.02± 8.55 -99.00 ARCPAC2008
ASC surface-flask NOAA United Kingdom 7°58'S, 14°24'W, 85 masl 1365 1357 +0.75 +0.20 -0.05± 0.71 +0.35± 0.61 -0.37± 0.66 +1.02 ASC
ASK surface-flask NOAA Algeria 23°16'N, 5°38'E, 2710 masl 705 701 +0.75 +0.13 -0.07± 0.60 -0.19± 0.59 +0.04± 0.60 +0.66 ASK
AZR surface-flask NOAA Portugal 38°46'N, 27°23'W, 19 masl 431 424 +1.50 +0.45 +0.23± 1.27 +0.40± 1.43 +0.23± 1.22 +0.76 AZR
BAL surface-flask NOAA Poland 55°21'N, 17°13'E, 3 masl 976 966 +5.02 +4.41 -0.81± 3.46 -1.00± 3.70 -0.66± 3.32 +0.48 BAL
BAO surface-pfp NOAA United States 40° 3'N, 105° 0'W, 1584 masl 2299 0 +1000.00 +1.34 -1.54± 3.42 -1.30± 3.98 -1.84± 2.96 -99.00 BAO
BAO tower-insitu NOAA United States 40° 3'N, 105° 0'W, 1584 masl 67147 9939 +9.74 +4.99 -1.46± 3.24 -1.11± 3.00 -1.83± 3.35 +0.15 BAO
BCK surface-insitu EC Canada 62°48'N, 116° 3'W, 179 masl 23732 3481 +4.94 +3.10 +0.19± 1.48 +0.21± 2.05 +0.17± 1.10 +0.16 BCK
BCS surface-flask SIO_co2 Mexico 23°18'N, 110°12'W, 4 masl 172 0 +1000.00 +0.79 -1.17± 3.89 -2.94± 4.96 +0.48± 1.98 -99.00 BCS
BGI aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 42°49'N, 94°25'W, 355 masl 357 0 +1000.00 +2.76 +0.17± 2.46 +0.25± 3.06 +0.25± 1.75 -99.00 BGI
BHD surface-flask NOAA New Zealand 41°24'S, 174°52'E, 85 masl 206 205 +0.75 +0.23 +0.17± 0.64 +0.49± 0.68 -0.05± 0.56 +0.95 BHD
BHD surface-flask SIO_co2 New Zealand 41°24'S, 174°52'E, 85 masl 155 0 +1000.00 +0.43 +0.76± 1.20 +1.07± 1.13 +0.49± 1.34 -99.00 BHD
BHD surface-insitu NIWA New Zealand 41°24'S, 174°52'E, 85 masl 517 513 +0.78 +0.19 +0.28± 0.49 +0.44± 0.48 +0.13± 0.47 +0.61 BHD
BIR surface-insitu NILU Norway 58°23'N, 8°15'E, 219 masl 8313 0 +1000.00 +12.45 -2.88±14.56 -6.53±21.59 -0.42± 6.20 -99.00 BIR
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
BKT surface-flask NOAA Indonesia 0°12'S, 100°19'E, 845 masl 358 0 +1000.00 +0.90 +2.81± 4.07 +2.80± 4.52 +2.99± 3.72 -99.00 BKT
BME surface-flask NOAA United Kingdom 32°22'N, 64°39'W, 12 masl 236 230 +1.50 +0.54 +0.50± 1.25 +1.13± 1.24 +0.19± 1.23 +0.91 BME
BMW surface-flask NOAA United Kingdom 32°16'N, 64°53'W, 30 masl 534 527 +1.51 +0.59 +0.58± 1.11 +0.60± 1.08 +0.55± 1.09 +0.75 BMW
BNE aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 40°48'N, 97°11'W, 465 masl 1080 0 +1000.00 +2.28 +0.05± 3.42 +0.23± 3.95 +0.31± 1.70 -99.00 BNE
BRA surface-insitu EC Canada 51°12'N, 104°42'W, 595 masl 40561 5621 +4.87 +6.85 -0.00± 1.81 +0.21± 2.25 -0.06± 1.67 +0.25 BRA
BRM tower-insitu KUP Switzerland 47°11'N, 8°11'E, 797 masl 25632 0 +1000.00 +9.12 -0.00±11.49 -2.67±11.37 +1.35±11.32 -99.00 BRM
BRM tower-insitu KUP Switzerland 47°11'N, 8°11'E, 797 masl 25422 0 +1000.00 +7.58 +1.77± 9.43 -0.43± 9.51 +2.96± 9.21 -99.00 BRM
BRM tower-insitu KUP Switzerland 47°11'N, 8°11'E, 797 masl 25658 0 +1000.00 +6.73 +2.46± 8.32 +0.39± 8.74 +3.63± 7.85 -99.00 BRM
BRM tower-insitu KUP Switzerland 47°11'N, 8°11'E, 797 masl 25631 0 +1000.00 +8.67 +0.98±10.84 -1.33±10.70 +2.13±10.80 -99.00 BRM
BRM tower-insitu KUP Switzerland 47°11'N, 8°11'E, 797 masl 25633 0 +1000.00 +8.31 +1.45±10.40 -0.80±10.32 +2.59±10.31 -99.00 BRM
BRW surface-flask NOAA United States 71°19'N, 156°37'W, 11 masl 891 0 +1000.00 +1.24 -0.05± 1.35 +0.09± 1.89 -0.11± 1.01 -99.00 BRW
BRW surface-flask SIO_co2 United States 71°19'N, 156°37'W, 11 masl 762 0 +1000.00 +2.42 -1.47±36.70 -0.24± 4.32 -3.12±51.99 -99.00 BRW
BRW surface-insitu NOAA United States 71°19'N, 156°37'W, 11 masl 127687 12076 +1.34 +1.43 +0.11± 0.57 +0.27± 0.70 +0.01± 0.50 +0.60 BRW
BSC surface-flask NOAA Romania 44°11'N, 28°40'E, 0 masl 434 0 +1000.00 +4.02 -6.36± 9.20 -10.46±10.66 -4.05± 7.17 -99.00 BSC
CALNEX2010 aircraft-insitu NOAA-CSD United States Variable 39375 0 +1000.00 +3.51 -inf± nan -1.43±12.75 +0.56± 7.77 -99.00 CALNEX2010
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
CAR aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 40°38'N, 104°20'W, 1488 masl 5291 0 +1000.00 +0.46 +0.36± 1.11 +0.20± 1.38 +0.51± 0.80 -99.00 CAR
CBA surface-flask NOAA United States 55°13'N, 162°43'W, 21 masl 1078 1029 +1.51 +0.52 -0.50± 1.41 +0.41± 1.65 -0.95± 0.98 +1.12 CBA
CBA surface-flask SIO United States 55°13'N, 162°43'W, 21 masl 329 0 +1000.00 +0.54 +0.02± 1.88 +1.00± 2.57 -0.40± 1.09 -99.00 CBA
CBY surface-insitu EC Canada 69° 1'N, 105° 3'W, 35 masl 22054 3270 +4.96 +1.99 +0.18± 0.86 +0.08± 1.05 +0.22± 0.73 +0.07 CBY
CDL surface-insitu EC Canada 53°59'N, 105° 7'W, 600 masl 66546 10193 +4.94 +9.82 +0.12± 1.67 +0.55± 2.19 -0.07± 1.40 +0.20 CDL
CES tower-insitu ECN the Netherlands 51°58'N, 4°56'E, -1 masl 97340 0 +1000.00 +6.10 +0.25±10.23 +0.81± 9.90 -0.07±10.63 -99.00 CES
CES tower-insitu ECN the Netherlands 51°58'N, 4°56'E, -1 masl 97269 0 +1000.00 +3.83 -1.85± 8.09 -0.86± 7.66 -2.58± 8.52 -99.00 CES
CES tower-insitu ECN the Netherlands 51°58'N, 4°56'E, -1 masl 95578 0 +1000.00 +6.60 -5.03±14.31 -6.92±16.88 -3.87±12.73 -99.00 CES
CES tower-insitu ECN the Netherlands 51°58'N, 4°56'E, -1 masl 96668 0 +1000.00 +6.38 -1.55±10.93 -1.40±10.90 -1.57±11.12 -99.00 CES
CFA surface-flask CSIRO Australia 19°17'S, 147° 3'E, 2 masl 324 320 +1.63 +0.57 -0.50± 1.08 -0.18± 1.28 -0.76± 0.87 +0.54 CFA
CGO surface-flask NOAA Australia 40°41'S, 144°41'E, 94 masl 548 545 +0.50 +0.12 +0.16± 0.37 +0.43± 0.29 -0.08± 0.29 +0.67 CGO
CGO surface-flask CSIRO Australia 40°41'S, 144°41'E, 94 masl 798 0 +1000.00 +0.12 +0.13± 0.33 +0.38± 0.26 -0.08± 0.27 -99.00 CGO
CGO surface-flask SIO Australia 40°41'S, 144°41'E, 94 masl 329 0 +1000.00 +0.13 +0.35± 0.36 +0.63± 0.27 +0.13± 0.27 -99.00 CGO
CHL surface-insitu EC Canada 58°45'N, 94° 4'W, 29 masl 23673 3571 +4.99 +4.12 +0.08± 1.27 +0.02± 1.73 +0.17± 1.01 +0.09 CHL
CHM surface-insitu EC Canada 49°41'N, 74°18'W, 393 masl 22635 3367 +4.92 +4.10 +0.12± 1.78 +0.83± 2.25 -0.18± 1.53 +0.21 CHM
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
CHR surface-flask NOAA Republic of Kiribati 1°42'N, 157° 9'W, 0 masl 503 503 +0.75 +0.16 -0.37± 0.54 -0.19± 0.46 -0.46± 0.55 +0.82 CHR
CHR surface-flask SIO_co2 Republic of Kiribati 1°42'N, 157° 9'W, 0 masl 482 0 +1000.00 +0.16 -1.97± 4.41 -1.70± 3.84 -1.88± 4.24 -99.00 CHR
CIB surface-flask NOAA Spain 41°49'N, 4°56'W, 845 masl 295 283 +2.51 +3.04 +0.11± 2.16 -0.06± 2.23 +0.15± 1.84 +0.69 CIB
CMA aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 38°50'N, 74°19'W, 0 masl 2235 0 +1000.00 +2.02 +0.24± 2.55 +0.01± 3.37 +0.34± 1.78 -99.00 CMA
COB2003B aircraft-insitu HU United States Variable 22639 0 +1000.00 +2.35 +0.41± 2.63 +0.46± 2.88 +nan± nan -99.00 COB2003B
COB2004 aircraft-insitu HU United States Variable 52160 0 +1000.00 +3.46 +0.47± 4.41 +0.68± 4.95 +nan± nan -99.00 COB2004
CPS surface-insitu EC Canada 49°49'N, 74°59'W, 381 masl 33991 4851 +4.91 +4.48 +0.24± 1.65 +0.64± 2.30 -0.01± 1.20 +0.20 CPS
CPT surface-flask NOAA South Africa 34°21'S, 18°29'E, 230 masl 216 215 +1.52 +0.28 -0.20± 0.79 +0.16± 0.66 -0.52± 0.78 +0.32 CPT
CPT surface-insitu SAWS South Africa 34°21'S, 18°29'E, 230 masl 106508 0 +1000.00 +0.30 +0.13± 0.82 +0.69± 0.74 -0.26± 0.66 -99.00 CPT
CRI surface-flask CSIRO India 15° 5'N, 73°50'E, 60 masl 147 0 +1000.00 +6.21 -3.88± 6.66 -1.17± 4.46 -5.97± 7.29 -99.00 CRI
CRZ surface-flask NOAA France 46°26'S, 51°51'E, 197 masl 599 596 +0.50 +0.15 +0.17± 0.32 +0.33± 0.27 +0.04± 0.29 +0.53 CRZ
CYA surface-flask CSIRO Australia 66°17'S, 110°31'E, 47 masl 361 359 +0.58 +0.10 -0.01± 0.30 +0.16± 0.23 -0.12± 0.31 +0.34 CYA
DEC surface-insitu IC3 Spain 40°45'N, 0°47'E, 5 masl 15728 0 +1000.00 +4.76 -0.37± 9.44 -0.86±12.21 +0.19± 7.23 -99.00 DEC
DND aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 47°30'N, 99°14'W, 472 masl 1932 0 +1000.00 +1.68 +0.19± 2.06 +0.52± 3.01 +0.16± 1.19 -99.00 DND
DRP shipboard-flask NOAA N/A 59° 0'S, 64°41'W, 0 masl 199 198 +0.52 +0.20 +0.04± 0.34 +0.17± 0.36 -0.03± 0.31 +0.48 DRP
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
EEC surface-insitu IC3 Spain 36° 4'N, 5°40'W, 20 masl 12995 0 +1000.00 +1.52 -1.96± 6.89 -1.39± 4.49 -1.92± 7.48 -99.00 EEC
EGB surface-insitu EC Canada 44°14'N, 79°47'W, 251 masl 83069 10276 +4.71 +9.91 +0.19± 2.14 +0.51± 2.55 -0.07± 1.84 +0.37 EGB
EIC surface-flask NOAA Chile 27°10'S, 109°26'W, 47 masl 490 488 +1.50 +0.12 +0.32± 1.08 +0.78± 0.93 -0.07± 0.99 +0.58 EIC
ELL surface-flask IC3 Spain 42°34'N, 0°57'E, 2002 masl 139 0 +1000.00 +0.86 +0.85± 1.95 +1.65± 1.80 +0.02± 1.62 -99.00 ELL
ESP aircraft-pfp NOAA Canada 49°23'N, 126°33'W, 7 masl 3562 0 +1000.00 +2.85 -0.11± 2.87 -0.27± 4.21 +0.06± 1.56 -99.00 ESP
ESP surface-flask CSIRO Canada 49°23'N, 126°33'W, 7 masl 23 0 +1000.00 +0.89 +0.09± 1.39 +0.71± 0.44 -0.90± 1.53 -99.00 ESP
ESP surface-insitu EC Canada 49°23'N, 126°33'W, 7 masl 51816 7397 +4.92 +3.80 +0.08± 1.84 +0.50± 2.12 +0.01± 1.50 +0.20 ESP
EST surface-insitu EC Canada 51°40'N, 110°12'W, 707 masl 47518 6923 +4.91 +5.63 +0.07± 1.84 +0.57± 2.21 -0.16± 1.63 +0.24 EST
ETL aircraft-pfp NOAA Canada 54°21'N, 104°59'W, 492 masl 2615 0 +1000.00 +1.32 +0.07± 1.59 +0.34± 2.21 +0.00± 1.06 -99.00 ETL
ETL surface-insitu EC Canada 54°21'N, 104°59'W, 492 masl 83305 12677 +4.94 +7.26 +0.07± 1.60 +0.47± 2.00 -0.07± 1.33 +0.18 ETL
FNE surface-insitu EC Canada 58°50'N, 122°34'W, 361 masl 6573 0 +1000.00 +8.34 -11.77±20.61 -16.30±23.59 -4.96±15.48 -99.00 FNE
FSD surface-insitu EC Canada 49°53'N, 81°34'W, 210 masl 121749 17804 +4.87 +6.57 +0.19± 1.69 +0.67± 2.25 -0.07± 1.24 +0.21 FSD
FTL aircraft-pfp NOAA Brazil 3°31'S, 38°17'W, 3 masl 160 0 +1000.00 +0.25 -0.41± 1.35 +0.20± 1.40 -0.90± 0.86 -99.00 FTL
FWI aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 44°40'N, 90°58'W, 334 masl 378 0 +1000.00 +2.54 +0.17± 3.20 -0.09± 4.14 +0.73± 2.61 -99.00 FWI
GIC surface-insitu IC3 Spain 40°21'N, 5°11'W, 1436 masl 18652 0 +1000.00 +1.35 -8.86±16.09 -14.92±21.20 -5.07±10.55 -99.00 GIC
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
GMI surface-flask NOAA Guam 13°23'N, 144°39'E, 0 masl 958 958 +0.75 +0.09 +0.23± 0.82 +0.22± 0.94 +0.33± 0.70 +1.35 GMI
GPA surface-flask CSIRO Australia 12°15'S, 131° 3'E, 25 masl 59 0 +1000.00 +0.98 +0.85± 2.95 +0.72± 3.45 +1.04± 2.29 -99.00 GPA
HAA aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 21°14'N, 158°57'W, 3 masl 1778 0 +1000.00 +0.11 +0.41± 0.81 +0.39± 0.85 +0.45± 0.73 -99.00 HAA
HBA surface-flask NOAA United Kingdom 75°36'S, 26°13'W, 30 masl 698 694 +0.50 +0.14 +0.14± 0.25 +0.33± 0.21 +0.01± 0.20 +0.34 HBA
HDP surface-insitu NCAR United States 40°34'N, 111°39'W, 3351 masl 62719 0 +1000.00 +0.38 -0.23± 1.39 -0.27± 1.72 -0.25± 1.12 -99.00 HDP
HEI surface-insitu UHEI-IUP Germany 49°25'N, 8°40'E, 116 masl 123793 0 +1000.00 +7.23 -8.42±14.85 -8.23±13.66 -8.55±15.72 -99.00 HEI
HFM aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 42°32'N, 72°10'W, 340 masl 1609 0 +1000.00 +2.10 +0.34± 2.66 +0.14± 3.96 +0.32± 1.55 -99.00 HFM
HIL aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 40° 4'N, 87°55'W, 201 masl 2310 0 +1000.00 +2.33 -0.31± 2.98 -0.47± 4.28 -0.10± 1.72 -99.00 HIL
HIP aircraft-insitu HU United States Variable 130016 0 +1000.00 +0.47 +0.02± 1.23 +0.17± 1.31 -0.12± 1.11 -99.00 HIP
HNP surface-insitu EC Canada 43°37'N, 79°23'W, 87 masl 10946 0 +1000.00 +13.26 -2.83±15.54 -4.34±18.86 -1.50±11.21 -99.00 HNP
HPB surface-flask NOAA Germany 47°48'N, 11° 1'E, 936 masl 422 410 +5.00 +4.45 +0.84± 3.98 +1.45± 4.04 +0.40± 4.00 +0.64 HPB
HPB surface-insitu HPB Germany 47°48'N, 11° 1'E, 934 masl 2833 0 +1000.00 +9.65 -0.80± 9.63 -0.98± 8.52 +1.58± 6.90 -99.00 HPB
HTM tower-insitu LUND-CEC Sweden 56° 6'N, 13°25'E, 115 masl 6779 0 +1000.00 +2.76 -1.55± 4.21 -1.68± 4.43 -1.27± 4.15 -99.00 HTM
HTM tower-insitu LUND-CEC Sweden 56° 6'N, 13°25'E, 115 masl 6783 0 +1000.00 +4.18 -3.89± 7.11 -5.14± 8.47 -2.61± 5.57 -99.00 HTM
HTM tower-insitu LUND-CEC Sweden 56° 6'N, 13°25'E, 115 masl 6787 0 +1000.00 +3.96 -2.51± 5.30 -2.75± 5.82 -2.08± 4.92 -99.00 HTM
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
HUN surface-flask NOAA Hungary 46°57'N, 16°39'E, 248 masl 754 0 +1000.00 +7.13 -0.39± 4.91 +0.37± 4.32 -0.70± 5.50 -99.00 HUN
HUN tower-insitu HMS Hungary 46°57'N, 16°39'E, 248 masl 117348 0 +1000.00 +11.03 -7.98±16.55 -13.04±21.93 -3.90±10.00 -99.00 HUN
HUN tower-insitu HMS Hungary 46°57'N, 16°39'E, 248 masl 118729 19207 +5.98 +9.97 -0.05± 3.44 +0.44± 3.22 -0.36± 3.56 +0.63 HUN
HUN tower-insitu HMS Hungary 46°57'N, 16°39'E, 248 masl 120761 0 +1000.00 +10.66 -3.06± 9.68 -4.92±11.78 -1.36± 7.51 -99.00 HUN
HUN tower-insitu HMS Hungary 46°57'N, 16°39'E, 248 masl 117338 0 +1000.00 +10.27 -1.21± 8.00 -2.05± 9.39 -0.33± 6.66 -99.00 HUN
ICE surface-flask NOAA Iceland 63°24'N, 20°17'W, 118 masl 416 414 +1.50 +0.40 -0.09± 0.80 +0.26± 0.93 -0.27± 0.66 +0.32 ICE
INU surface-insitu EC Canada 68°19'N, 133°32'W, 113 masl 33186 5092 +5.03 +3.65 +0.13± 1.52 +0.39± 1.98 +0.01± 1.08 +0.18 INU
INX aircraft-pfp NOAA United States Variable 280 0 +1000.00 +5.36 -0.24± 5.59 +1.22± 7.66 -1.24± 3.90 -99.00 INX
INX surface-pfp NOAA United States Variable 1337 0 +1000.00 +8.06 -1.81± 7.91 -2.55±10.15 -1.45± 6.48 -99.00 INX
IZO surface-flask NOAA Spain 28°19'N, 16°30'W, 2372 masl 643 0 +1000.00 +0.15 +0.56± 1.00 +0.55± 0.97 +0.59± 1.02 -99.00 IZO
IZO surface-insitu AEMET Spain 28°19'N, 16°30'W, 2372 masl 116462 60685 +2.56 +0.15 +0.03± 0.75 -0.01± 0.81 +0.06± 0.75 +0.10 IZO
JFJ surface-insitu KUP Switzerland 46°33'N, 7°59'E, 3570 masl 79955 13274 +2.97 +0.78 +0.00± 1.58 +0.11± 1.39 -0.10± 1.75 +0.34 JFJ
JFJ surface-insitu EMPA Switzerland 46°33'N, 7°59'E, 3570 masl 47491 7804 +2.95 +0.80 +0.07± 1.44 +0.22± 1.25 -0.01± 1.56 +0.30 JFJ
KAS surface-insitu AGH Poland 49°14'N, 19°59'E, 1989 masl 84597 0 +1000.00 +1.57 -0.22± 4.86 +1.76± 4.91 -1.77± 4.24 -99.00 KAS
KEY surface-flask NOAA United States 25°40'N, 80° 9'W, 1 masl 537 531 +1.50 +0.77 +0.03± 0.88 +0.17± 0.81 -0.09± 0.96 +0.36 KEY
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
KUM surface-flask NOAA United States 19°31'N, 154°49'W, 3 masl 967 962 +0.89 +0.11 -0.06± 0.99 -0.09± 1.02 +0.02± 1.02 +1.37 KUM
KUM surface-flask SIO_co2 United States 19°31'N, 154°49'W, 3 masl 822 0 +1000.00 +0.11 +nan± nan -0.43± 2.11 -0.32± 1.95 -99.00 KUM
KUM surface-flask SIO United States 19°31'N, 154°49'W, 3 masl 539 0 +1000.00 +0.11 -0.06± 1.31 -0.01± 1.16 -0.07± 1.51 -99.00 KUM
KZD surface-flask NOAA Kazakhstan 44° 5'N, 76°52'E, 595 masl 441 423 +2.50 +2.27 -0.38± 2.42 -0.82± 2.75 -0.09± 2.01 +1.02 KZD
KZM surface-flask NOAA Kazakhstan 43°15'N, 77°53'E, 2519 masl 393 392 +2.50 +0.89 +0.13± 2.23 +0.78± 2.18 -0.60± 1.81 +0.84 KZM
LEF aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 45°57'N, 90°16'W, 472 masl 3205 0 +1000.00 +2.73 -0.10± 2.29 +0.00± 3.18 -0.04± 1.48 -99.00 LEF
LEF surface-pfp NOAA United States 45°57'N, 90°16'W, 472 masl 2596 0 +1000.00 +4.56 -0.22± 3.41 +0.10± 4.94 -0.22± 2.14 -99.00 LEF
LEF tower-insitu NOAA United States 45°57'N, 90°16'W, 472 masl 124321 20383 +4.98 +4.43 +0.05± 2.11 +0.39± 2.72 -0.12± 1.59 +0.35 LEF
LJO surface-flask SIO_co2 United States 32°52'N, 117°15'W, 10 masl 407 0 +1000.00 +1.36 +8.20± 7.61 +11.44± 6.98 +6.02± 6.55 -99.00 LJO
LJO surface-flask SIO United States 32°52'N, 117°15'W, 10 masl 322 317 +5.03 +0.84 +4.19± 2.68 +5.96± 2.79 +3.24± 2.15 +1.07 LJO
LLB surface-flask NOAA Canada 54°57'N, 112°27'W, 540 masl 159 0 +1000.00 +4.92 -0.85± 4.57 -0.94± 5.43 -0.81± 4.46 -99.00 LLB
LLB surface-insitu EC Canada 54°57'N, 112°27'W, 540 masl 64393 8378 +4.77 +6.78 -0.22± 2.16 +0.32± 2.46 -0.49± 2.08 +0.39 LLB
LMP surface-flask NOAA Italy 35°31'N, 12°37'E, 45 masl 379 370 +1.50 +1.34 +0.27± 1.34 -0.29± 1.39 +0.65± 1.18 +0.91 LMP
LUT surface-insitu RUG Netherlands 53°24'N, 6°21'E, 1 masl 59986 0 +1000.00 +6.61 -3.57± 9.27 -4.65±10.87 -2.47± 7.95 -99.00 LUT
MAA surface-flask CSIRO Australia 67°37'S, 62°52'E, 32 masl 386 385 +0.58 +0.10 +0.01± 0.30 +0.24± 0.26 -0.13± 0.24 +0.32 MAA
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
MEX surface-flask NOAA Mexico 18°59'N, 97°19'W, 4464 masl 275 271 +2.50 +0.40 +0.80± 1.54 +1.42± 1.57 +0.25± 1.12 +0.46 MEX
MHD surface-flask NOAA Ireland 53°20'N, 9°54'W, 5 masl 634 625 +1.50 +0.69 +0.09± 0.93 +0.40± 1.04 -0.05± 0.85 +0.44 MHD
MHD surface-insitu LSCE Ireland 53°20'N, 9°54'W, 5 masl 11329 0 +1000.00 +0.45 +0.17± 0.80 +0.45± 0.95 +0.04± 0.68 -99.00 MHD
MID surface-flask NOAA United States 28°13'N, 177°23'W, 11 masl 735 731 +1.50 +0.21 +0.57± 0.96 +0.96± 0.97 +0.40± 0.93 +0.59 MID
MKN surface-flask NOAA Kenya 0° 4'S, 37°18'E, 3644 masl 138 138 +2.50 +0.22 +1.64± 1.98 +2.36± 2.22 +1.32± 1.52 +1.06 MKN
MLO surface-flask NOAA United States 19°32'N, 155°35'W, 3397 masl 1159 0 +1000.00 +0.11 +0.11± 0.59 +0.05± 0.65 +0.17± 0.55 -99.00 MLO
MLO surface-flask CSIRO United States 19°32'N, 155°35'W, 3397 masl 512 0 +1000.00 +0.11 +0.18± 0.66 -0.00± 0.58 +0.36± 0.71 -99.00 MLO
MLO surface-flask SIO_co2 United States 19°32'N, 155°35'W, 3397 masl 833 0 +1000.00 +0.11 +0.21± 0.66 +0.12± 0.70 +0.31± 0.64 -99.00 MLO
MLO surface-flask SIO United States 19°32'N, 155°35'W, 3397 masl 589 0 +1000.00 +0.11 -0.00± 3.91 -0.62± 6.46 +0.37± 0.70 -99.00 MLO
MLO surface-insitu NOAA United States 19°32'N, 155°35'W, 3397 masl 127214 15602 +1.42 +0.10 +0.17± 0.55 -0.08± 0.51 +0.32± 0.53 +0.21 MLO
MNM surface-insitu JMA Japan 24°17'N, 153°59'E, 8 masl 109810 0 +1000.00 +0.21 +0.25± 0.76 +0.21± 0.80 +0.39± 0.73 -99.00 MNM
MQA surface-flask CSIRO Australia 54°29'S, 158°58'E, 6 masl 467 465 +0.58 +0.15 +0.06± 0.40 +0.27± 0.43 -0.07± 0.34 +0.54 MQA
MVY surface-insitu NOAA United States 41°20'N, 70°31'W, 0 masl 60268 0 +1000.00 +4.24 +0.94± 6.27 +0.46± 8.45 +1.16± 4.73 -99.00 MVY
NAT surface-flask NOAA Brazil 5°48'S, 35°11'W, 50 masl 190 189 +1.50 +0.17 -0.63± 0.97 -0.54± 1.08 -0.73± 0.90 +0.63 NAT
NAT surface-flask IPEN Brazil 5°48'S, 35°11'W, 50 masl 201 0 +1000.00 +0.17 -0.58± 1.10 -0.49± 1.34 -0.64± 0.93 -99.00 NAT
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
NHA aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 42°57'N, 70°38'W, 0 masl 3100 0 +1000.00 +1.85 +0.31± 2.36 +0.53± 3.33 +0.26± 1.76 -99.00 NHA
NMB surface-flask NOAA Namibia 23°35'S, 15° 2'E, 456 masl 322 320 +1.50 +0.54 -0.12± 1.22 +0.56± 1.01 -0.82± 0.99 +0.75 NMB
NOR tower-insitu LUND-CEC Sweden 60° 5'N, 17°29'E, 45 masl 8560 0 +1000.00 +3.07 -1.09± 5.65 -2.79± 7.68 +0.36± 3.58 -99.00 NOR
NOR tower-insitu LUND-CEC Sweden 60° 5'N, 17°29'E, 45 masl 8082 0 +1000.00 +3.37 -3.34± 8.39 -6.17±11.13 -0.44± 4.16 -99.00 NOR
NOR tower-insitu LUND-CEC Sweden 60° 5'N, 17°29'E, 45 masl 8086 0 +1000.00 +3.25 -2.34± 7.04 -4.62± 9.39 -0.16± 3.91 -99.00 NOR
NWR surface-flask NOAA United States 40° 3'N, 105°35'W, 3523 masl 717 0 +1000.00 +0.48 +0.44± 1.29 +1.25± 1.43 +0.00± 0.94 -99.00 NWR
NWR surface-insitu NCAR United States 40° 3'N, 105°35'W, 3523 masl 72734 0 +1000.00 +0.53 -0.00± 1.58 +0.12± 2.06 -0.04± 1.15 -99.00 NWR
NWR surface-pfp NOAA United States 40° 3'N, 105°35'W, 3523 masl 2044 0 +1000.00 +0.59 +0.56± 1.90 +1.36± 2.40 +0.06± 1.32 -99.00 NWR
OBN surface-flask NOAA Russia 55° 7'N, 36°36'E, 183 masl 133 133 +5.03 +3.63 +0.04± 3.69 -0.72± 4.01 +0.66± 3.62 +0.58 OBN
OFR surface-insitu OSU United States 44°39'N, 123°33'W, 263 masl 29302 0 +1000.00 +7.96 -0.42± 9.61 -0.93±10.38 +0.36± 9.24 -99.00 OFR
OIL aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 41°17'N, 88°56'W, 192 masl 424 0 +1000.00 +2.13 +0.45± 2.11 +0.32± 2.80 +0.39± 1.19 -99.00 OIL
OMP surface-insitu OSU United States 44°30'N, 123°33'W, 1249 masl 54760 0 +1000.00 +1.48 +0.76± 3.20 +1.21± 4.28 +0.41± 2.03 -99.00 OMP
OMT surface-insitu OSU United States 44°27'N, 121°33'W, 1255 masl 51526 0 +1000.00 +2.91 -1.04± 4.98 -2.58± 5.98 -0.05± 3.70 -99.00 OMT
ONG surface-insitu OSU United States 43°28'N, 119°41'W, 1398 masl 47830 0 +1000.00 +2.35 -0.66± 3.75 -1.40± 4.20 -0.16± 3.16 -99.00 ONG
OSI tower-insitu OSU United States 44°60'N, 122°42'W, 351 masl 28059 0 +1000.00 +6.38 -0.21± 7.19 -2.06± 8.74 +1.22± 5.07 -99.00 OSI
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
OTA surface-flask CSIRO Australia 38°31'S, 142°49'E, 40 masl 139 0 +1000.00 +0.30 -1.38±19.82 -1.57±13.01 +2.45±17.62 -99.00 OTA
OWA surface-insitu OSU United States 44° 4'N, 123°38'W, 715 masl 30881 0 +1000.00 +2.84 -1.66± 4.12 -2.72± 4.96 -0.79± 3.07 -99.00 OWA
OXK surface-flask NOAA Germany 50° 2'N, 11°49'E, 1009 masl 360 357 +5.00 +1.74 -0.51± 3.58 +0.03± 3.84 -1.11± 3.47 +0.55 OXK
OYQ surface-insitu OSU United States 44°40'N, 124° 4'W, 116 masl 18780 0 +1000.00 +4.87 -0.41± 7.45 -2.09± 6.11 +0.61± 8.30 -99.00 OYQ
PAL surface-flask NOAA Finland 67°58'N, 24° 7'E, 560 masl 587 0 +1000.00 +2.50 -0.40± 2.90 -0.04± 3.71 -0.51± 2.27 -99.00 PAL
PAL surface-insitu FMI Finland 67°58'N, 24° 7'E, 560 masl 27146 0 +1000.00 +2.94 -0.58± 3.29 -0.01± 4.39 -0.57± 2.96 -99.00 PAL
PAL surface-insitu FMI Finland 67°58'N, 24° 7'E, 560 masl 23341 23307 +9.52 +1.46 -0.04± 1.18 +0.33± 1.64 -0.13± 0.93 +0.03 PAL
PAL surface-insitu FMI Finland 67°58'N, 24° 7'E, 560 masl 90700 0 +1000.00 +2.48 -0.29± 2.65 +0.22± 3.56 -0.39± 2.19 -99.00 PAL
PFA aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 65° 4'N, 147°17'W, 210 masl 3772 0 +1000.00 +1.05 +0.06± 1.78 +0.46± 2.52 -0.02± 1.27 -99.00 PFA
POC shipboard-flask NOAA N/A Variable 2316 2301 +0.87 +0.28 -0.05± 0.61 +0.13± 0.61 -0.15± 0.59 +0.69 POC
PRS surface-insitu RSE Italy 45°56'N, 7°42'E, 3480 masl 54243 0 +1000.00 +0.81 +0.06± 1.66 +0.74± 1.82 -0.26± 1.55 -99.00 PRS
PSA surface-flask NOAA United States 64°55'S, 64° 0'W, 10 masl 765 762 +0.50 +0.28 +0.02± 0.28 +0.11± 0.28 -0.02± 0.26 +0.34 PSA
PSA surface-flask SIO United States 64°55'S, 64° 0'W, 10 masl 365 0 +1000.00 +0.28 +0.20± 0.31 +0.34± 0.26 +0.12± 0.29 -99.00 PSA
PTA surface-flask NOAA United States 38°57'N, 123°44'W, 17 masl 398 396 +5.01 +2.65 -2.42± 3.49 -1.78± 3.41 -2.63± 3.50 +0.71 PTA
PUY surface-insitu LSCE France 45°46'N, 2°58'E, 1465 masl 25718 0 +1000.00 +2.45 -0.46± 3.86 -0.02± 4.72 -0.84± 2.89 -99.00 PUY
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
RBA-B aircraft-pfp IPEN Brazil Variable 675 0 +1000.00 +1.21 -0.15± 3.44 +0.64± 3.86 -0.00± 2.88 -99.00 RBA-B
RBA surface-insitu NCAR United States 36°28'N, 109° 6'W, 2982 masl 25269 0 +1000.00 +0.36 -0.11± 1.21 -0.10± 1.39 -0.16± 1.14 -99.00 RBA
RGL tower-insitu UNIVBRIS United Kingdom 51°60'N, 2°32'W, 204 masl 32310 0 +1000.00 +5.56 -0.81± 6.53 -1.35± 7.85 +0.13± 5.29 -99.00 RGL
RGL tower-insitu UNIVBRIS United Kingdom 51°60'N, 2°32'W, 204 masl 32072 0 +1000.00 +3.44 -1.56± 5.31 -1.73± 6.20 -1.08± 4.66 -99.00 RGL
RK1 surface-flask SIO_co2 Raoul Island 29°12'S, 177°54'W, 2 masl 111 0 +1000.00 +0.30 -0.57± 2.40 +0.03± 0.65 -0.84± 0.95 -99.00 RK1
RPB surface-flask NOAA Barbados 13°10'N, 59°26'W, 15 masl 740 736 +1.50 +0.29 -0.05± 0.69 +0.41± 0.65 -0.26± 0.55 +0.22 RPB
RTA aircraft-pfp NOAA Cook Islands 21°15'S, 159°50'W, 3 masl 2326 0 +1000.00 +0.12 -0.10± 0.65 +0.15± 0.50 -0.30± 0.69 -99.00 RTA
RYO surface-insitu JMA Japan 39° 2'N, 141°49'E, 260 masl 66898 0 +1000.00 +1.35 -0.39± 2.40 +0.34± 3.64 -0.35± 1.72 -99.00 RYO
SAN aircraft-pfp NOAA Brazil 2°51'S, 54°57'W, 78 masl 322 309 +2.00 +0.58 +0.10± 1.80 -0.23± 1.70 +0.47± 1.96 +1.07 SAN
SAN aircraft-pfp IPEN Brazil 2°51'S, 54°57'W, 78 masl 1101 1076 +2.00 +0.47 -0.26± 1.70 -0.17± 1.87 -0.15± 1.60 +1.04 SAN
SCA aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 32°46'N, 79°33'W, 0 masl 2517 0 +1000.00 +1.24 +0.19± 1.94 -0.01± 2.56 +0.31± 1.36 -99.00 SCA
SCT surface-pfp NOAA United States 33°24'N, 81°50'W, 115 masl 1608 0 +1000.00 +4.15 -0.36± 3.72 -0.10± 3.63 -0.64± 3.95 -99.00 SCT
SCT tower-insitu NOAA United States 33°24'N, 81°50'W, 115 masl 59805 9652 +5.95 +5.51 +0.12± 3.08 +0.23± 3.48 -0.04± 2.78 +0.42 SCT
SENEX2013 aircraft-insitu NOAA-CSD United States Variable 39617 0 +1000.00 +4.94 -inf± nan -inf± nan +nan± nan -99.00 SENEX2013
SEY surface-flask NOAA Seychelles 4°41'S, 55°32'E, 2 masl 685 682 +0.75 +0.18 -0.12± 0.72 +0.07± 0.51 -0.32± 0.83 +0.98 SEY
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
SGP aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 36°36'N, 97°29'W, 314 masl 5741 0 +1000.00 +2.40 +0.17± 2.43 -0.15± 2.92 +0.43± 1.63 -99.00 SGP
SGP surface-flask NOAA United States 36°36'N, 97°29'W, 314 masl 621 595 +3.00 +4.65 -0.14± 2.25 -0.50± 2.64 +0.14± 1.88 +0.55 SGP
SGP surface-insitu LBNL-ARM United States 36°36'N, 97°29'W, 314 masl 81033 13361 +5.98 +10.07 +0.05± 2.64 -0.06± 3.00 +0.08± 2.35 +0.33 SGP
SHM surface-flask NOAA United States 52°43'N, 174° 8'E, 23 masl 539 534 +2.50 +0.52 -0.07± 1.99 +1.55± 2.22 -1.04± 1.04 +0.74 SHM
SIS surface-flask CSIRO Scotland 60° 5'N, 1°15'W, 30 masl 89 88 +1.51 +0.46 +0.65± 0.97 +1.43± 0.94 +0.15± 0.72 +0.76 SIS
SMO surface-flask NOAA American Samoa 14°15'S, 170°34'W, 42 masl 1234 0 +1000.00 +0.11 -0.15± 0.54 +0.18± 0.38 -0.47± 0.49 -99.00 SMO
SMO surface-flask SIO_co2 American Samoa 14°15'S, 170°34'W, 42 masl 666 0 +1000.00 +0.11 -0.12± 3.45 +0.24± 4.09 -0.60± 1.84 -99.00 SMO
SMO surface-flask SIO American Samoa 14°15'S, 170°34'W, 42 masl 408 0 +1000.00 +0.11 -0.09± 0.72 +0.19± 0.69 -0.34± 0.67 -99.00 SMO
SMO surface-insitu NOAA American Samoa 14°15'S, 170°34'W, 42 masl 122075 16343 +1.41 +0.11 -0.09± 0.49 +0.26± 0.33 -0.41± 0.41 +0.16 SMO
SMR tower-insitu UHELS Finland 61°51'N, 24°18'E, 181 masl 24667 0 +1000.00 +3.79 -0.06± 4.84 +0.03± 7.11 +0.26± 3.22 -99.00 SMR
SMR tower-insitu UHELS Finland 61°51'N, 24°18'E, 181 masl 24554 0 +1000.00 +5.38 -0.65± 7.12 -2.08±10.61 +0.59± 4.51 -99.00 SMR
SMR tower-insitu UHELS Finland 61°51'N, 24°18'E, 181 masl 24671 0 +1000.00 +5.13 +0.01± 6.04 -0.63± 8.85 +0.79± 4.11 -99.00 SMR
SNP tower-insitu NOAA United States 38°37'N, 78°21'W, 1008 masl 53551 8632 +7.94 +3.68 +0.10± 4.04 +1.88± 4.67 -1.02± 3.32 +0.41 SNP
SONGNEX2015 aircraft-insitu NOAA-CSD United States Variable 42659 0 +1000.00 +1.96 +0.29± 1.95 +nan± nan +0.29± 1.95 -99.00 SONGNEX2015
SPL surface-insitu NCAR United States 40°27'N, 106°44'W, 3210 masl 71929 0 +1000.00 +0.55 -0.52± 1.92 -0.06± 2.37 -0.89± 1.48 -99.00 SPL
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
SPO surface-flask NOAA United States 89°59'S, 24°48'W, 2810 masl 824 0 +1000.00 +0.09 +0.15± 0.27 +0.40± 0.19 -0.02± 0.20 -99.00 SPO
SPO surface-flask CSIRO United States 89°59'S, 24°48'W, 2810 masl 158 0 +1000.00 +0.09 -0.02± 0.35 +0.13± 0.46 -0.15± 0.20 -99.00 SPO
SPO surface-flask SIO_co2 United States 89°59'S, 24°48'W, 2810 masl 387 0 +1000.00 +0.10 -0.02± 1.32 +0.22± 0.81 -0.13± 0.80 -99.00 SPO
SPO surface-flask SIO United States 89°59'S, 24°48'W, 2810 masl 371 0 +1000.00 +0.09 +0.18± 0.29 +0.44± 0.20 +0.01± 0.22 -99.00 SPO
SPO surface-insitu NOAA United States 89°59'S, 24°48'W, 2810 masl 130475 21363 +0.98 +0.09 +0.06± 0.26 +0.30± 0.17 -0.11± 0.18 +0.08 SPO
SSC surface-insitu IC3 Spain 38°18'N, 2°35'W, 1349 masl 11063 0 +1000.00 +1.02 +0.22± 3.46 -0.60± 3.35 +2.11± 2.94 -99.00 SSC
SSL surface-insitu UBA-SCHAU Germany 47°55'N, 7°55'E, 1205 masl 130497 0 +1000.00 +2.78 -0.40± 4.80 +0.03± 6.06 -0.75± 3.79 -99.00 SSL
STM surface-flask NOAA Norway 66° 0'N, 2° 0'E, 0 masl 853 851 +1.50 +0.87 +0.12± 1.03 +0.36± 1.07 -0.01± 1.00 +0.59 STM
STR surface-pfp NOAA United States 37°45'N, 122°27'W, 254 masl 3477 1558 +3.03 +1.97 -0.04± 2.21 +0.21± 2.34 -0.21± 2.20 +0.52 STR
SUM surface-flask NOAA Greenland 72°36'N, 38°25'W, 3209 masl 675 671 +0.75 +0.24 +0.08± 0.71 +0.34± 0.76 -0.08± 0.67 +1.05 SUM
SYO surface-flask NOAA Japan 69° 1'S, 39°35'E, 14 masl 370 368 +0.50 +0.10 +0.03± 0.26 +0.24± 0.22 -0.11± 0.21 +0.32 SYO
SYO surface-insitu TU Japan 69° 1'S, 39°35'E, 14 masl 5784 0 +1000.00 +0.11 +0.00± 0.23 +0.18± 0.19 -0.12± 0.18 -99.00 SYO
TAB aircraft-pfp IPEN Brazil Variable 463 0 +1000.00 +0.85 -0.34± 3.60 -0.67± 4.84 +0.18± 2.03 -99.00 TAB
TAC tower-insitu UNIVBRIS United Kingdom 52°31'N, 1° 8'E, 56 masl 27849 0 +1000.00 +3.94 -0.65± 6.01 -0.85± 6.78 -0.28± 5.52 -99.00 TAC
TAC tower-insitu UNIVBRIS United Kingdom 52°31'N, 1° 8'E, 56 masl 23302 0 +1000.00 +2.91 -0.41± 4.69 -0.34± 5.22 -0.25± 4.32 -99.00 TAC
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
TAC tower-insitu UNIVBRIS United Kingdom 52°31'N, 1° 8'E, 56 masl 27798 0 +1000.00 +4.11 -1.85± 7.08 -2.61± 8.35 -1.10± 6.18 -99.00 TAC
TAP surface-flask NOAA Republic of Korea 36°44'N, 126° 8'E, 16 masl 643 634 +5.50 +1.68 -0.09± 3.65 +0.86± 4.45 -0.48± 2.82 +0.51 TAP
TEXAQS2006 aircraft-insitu NOAA-CSD United States Variable 32654 0 +1000.00 +3.09 -0.86± 7.87 -0.08± 4.78 +nan± nan -99.00 TEXAQS2006
TGC aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 27°44'N, 96°52'W, 0 masl 2288 0 +1000.00 +0.75 +0.21± 1.40 +0.15± 1.39 +0.34± 1.31 -99.00 TGC
THD aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 41° 3'N, 124° 9'W, 107 masl 1748 0 +1000.00 +2.04 +0.09± 2.64 -0.25± 2.77 +0.32± 2.61 -99.00 THD
THD surface-flask NOAA United States 41° 3'N, 124° 9'W, 107 masl 606 598 +5.09 +2.16 -1.98± 3.45 -2.30± 3.81 -1.60± 3.05 +0.64 THD
TPD surface-insitu EC Canada 42°37'N, 80°33'W, 231 masl 26664 0 +1000.00 +15.38 -1.72±15.94 -5.85±23.20 +1.60± 8.37 -99.00 TPD
TTA tower-insitu UNIVBRIS United Kingdom 56°33'N, 2°59'W, 400 masl 18693 0 +1000.00 +1.22 -0.12± 3.19 +0.43± 3.63 -0.49± 2.66 -99.00 TTA
ULB aircraft-pfp NOAA Mongolia 47°24'N, 106° 0'E, 1350 masl 517 517 +2.00 +0.71 +0.19± 1.21 +0.42± 1.42 +0.17± 1.17 +0.70 ULB
USH surface-flask NOAA Argentina 54°51'S, 68°19'W, 12 masl 396 392 +0.75 +0.18 -0.29± 0.59 -0.32± 0.54 -0.21± 0.60 +0.78 USH
UTA surface-flask NOAA United States 39°54'N, 113°43'W, 1327 masl 689 681 +2.50 +1.61 +0.17± 1.98 +0.60± 2.18 -0.31± 1.67 +0.66 UTA
UUM surface-flask NOAA Mongolia 44°27'N, 111° 6'E, 1007 masl 724 709 +2.50 +1.06 -0.13± 2.49 -0.61± 2.84 +0.34± 2.14 +1.08 UUM
VAC surface-insitu IC3 Spain 42°53'N, 3°13'W, 1102 masl 14641 0 +1000.00 +2.27 -1.02± 3.59 -0.68± 4.41 -0.89± 2.58 -99.00 VAC
WAO surface-insitu UEA United Kingdom 52°57'N, 1° 7'E, 20 masl 44439 0 +1000.00 +4.61 -1.78± 6.95 -2.70± 7.83 -1.06± 6.34 -99.00 WAO
WBI aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 41°43'N, 91°21'W, 241 masl 1888 0 +1000.00 +2.73 +0.17± 2.42 -0.05± 3.14 +0.27± 1.60 -99.00 WBI
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
WBI surface-pfp NOAA United States 41°43'N, 91°21'W, 241 masl 1954 0 +1000.00 +6.40 -0.45± 4.02 -0.38± 5.59 -0.49± 2.61 -99.00 WBI
WBI tower-insitu NOAA United States 41°43'N, 91°21'W, 241 masl 65888 10504 +5.94 +5.86 -0.07± 2.99 +0.28± 3.89 -0.27± 2.33 +0.49 WBI
WGC surface-pfp NOAA United States 38°16'N, 121°29'W, 0 masl 1833 0 +1000.00 +8.51 -2.07± 9.22 +1.48± 8.52 -4.44± 9.41 -99.00 WGC
WGC tower-insitu NOAA United States 38°16'N, 121°29'W, 0 masl 65934 10125 +5.90 +4.77 +0.21± 3.23 +1.02± 2.68 -0.15± 3.57 +0.46 WGC
WIS surface-flask NOAA Israel 29°58'N, 35° 4'E, 151 masl 782 776 +2.50 +0.48 -0.26± 1.97 +0.25± 1.67 -0.41± 1.96 +0.64 WIS
WKT surface-pfp NOAA United States 31°19'N, 97°20'W, 251 masl 2020 0 +1000.00 +3.31 -0.38± 2.90 -0.41± 3.09 -0.40± 2.67 -99.00 WKT
WKT tower-insitu NOAA United States 31°19'N, 97°20'W, 251 masl 97805 15951 +5.96 +2.98 -0.02± 2.39 -0.03± 2.27 -0.03± 2.44 +0.24 WKT
WLG surface-flask NOAA Peoples Republic of China 36°17'N, 100°54'E, 3810 masl 631 612 +1.53 +0.89 -0.02± 1.34 +0.14± 1.30 +0.16± 1.28 +0.86 WLG
WSA surface-insitu EC Canada 43°56'N, 60° 1'W, 5 masl 88924 13759 +4.96 +1.71 +0.12± 1.71 +0.67± 2.34 -0.10± 1.29 +0.17 WSA
XIC surface-insitu IC3 Spain 41°59'N, 8° 1'W, 890 masl 1954 0 +1000.00 +1.36 -0.95± 3.97 +0.91± 3.52 -1.06± 3.22 -99.00 XIC
YON surface-insitu JMA Japan 24°28'N, 123° 1'E, 30 masl 82580 0 +1000.00 +0.39 +0.02± 1.75 +0.26± 1.61 +0.11± 1.75 -99.00 YON
ZEP surface-flask NOAA Norway and Sweden 78°54'N, 11°53'E, 474 masl 806 803 +1.50 +0.48 +0.12± 0.88 +0.32± 0.93 -0.06± 0.84 +0.48 ZEP
ZEP surface-insitu NILU Norway and Sweden 78°54'N, 11°53'E, 474 masl 7994 0 +1000.00 +0.53 +0.36± 1.34 -0.26± 1.52 +0.70± 1.09 -99.00 ZEP

3.   Further Reading




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