Wageningen University
& ICOS Netherlands


Documentation - CTE2016
Biosphere Oceans Observations Fires Fossil Fuel TM5 Nested Model Assimilation
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Observations [go to top]
1.   Introduction
The observations of atmospheric CO2 mole fraction by over 40 different laboratories are at the heart of CarbonTracker. They inform us on changes in the carbon cycle, whether they are regular (such as the seasonal growth and decay of leaves and trees), or irregular (such as the release of tons of carbon by a wildfire). The results in CarbonTracker depend directly on the quality, amount and location of observations available, and the degree of detail at which we can monitor the carbon cycle reliably increases strongly with the density of our observing network.

2.   Detailed Description
This study uses CO2 observations from in-situ measurements or from air samples collected in flasks at 354 global sites by 46 institutions worldwide. All contributing laboratories are included under collaborators. These observations are included in ObsPack GLOBALVIEWplusv3.2 and NRTv4.2. This ObsPack product contains 354 time series of surface flask samples, quasi-continuous in-situ observations also from towers and aircraft samples. Table 1 and the figure below summarize which time series have been used in our inversion. We assimilate a maximum of 1 time series per site (e.g. not 2 from the same location from different laboratories). Note that all of these observations are calibrated against the same world CO2 scale (WMO-2007).

For most of the quasi-continuous sampling sites, the time series consist of hourly averaged mole fractions. We assimilate only mole fractions from the afternoon hours, recognizing that our atmospheric transport model does not always capture the continental nighttime stability regime while daytime well-mixed conditions are better matched. At mountain-top sites (e.g. MLO, NWR, and SPL), we use the mole fractions from the nighttime hours as this tends to be the most stable time period and avoids periods of upslope flows that contain local vegetative and/or anthropogenic influence. The selection of hourly observations included in the assimilation is based on the flags as set in the ObsPack data sets. A set of coastal sites is moved by one degree into the ocean to force the model sample to be more representative of the actual site conditions (based on Transcom continuous simulations). Table 1 summarizes how data from the different measurement programs are included for this study.

The CO2 data from ObsPack used in CarbonTracker are freely available for download. Users are encouraged to review the literature and contact the measurement labs directly for details about and access to the actual observations.

We apply a further selection criterion during the assimilation to exclude non-marine boundary layer (MBL) and non-deep Southern Hemisphere observations that are very poorly forecasted in our framework. We use the so-called model-data mismatch (MDM) in this process, which is the random error ascribed to each observation to account for measurement errors as well as modeling errors of that observation. We scale the MDM with the amount of available observations per day, to represent both flask samples and quasi-continuous observations with equal weight. We interpret an observed-minus-forecasted (OmF) mole fraction that exceeds 3 times the prescribed model-data mismatch as an indicator that our modeling framework fails. This can happen for instance when an air sample is representative of local exchange not captured well by our 1x1 degree fluxes, when local meteorological conditions are not captured by our offline transport fields, but also when large-scale CO2 exchange is suddenly changed (e.g. fires, pests, droughts) to an extent that can not be accommodated by our flux modules. This last situation would imply an important change in the carbon cycle and has to be recognized by the researchers when analyzing the results. In accordance with the 3-sigma rejection criterion, less than 1% of the observations are discarded through this mechanism in our assimilations.

Table 1 gives a summary of the observing sites used in CarbonTracker and the assimilation performance. Model-data-mismatch ("R") is a value assigned to a given site that is meant to quantify our expected ability to simulate observations there. This value is principally determined from the limitations of the atmospheric transport model. It is part of the standard deviation used to interpret the difference between a simulation first guess ("Hx") of an observation and the actual measured value ("z"). The other component, HPHT is a measure of the ability of the ensemble Kalman filter to improve its simulated value for this observation by adjusting fluxes. These elements together form the innovation χ statistic for the site: χ = (z-Hx)/√(HPHT+r2). The innovation χ2 reported is the mean of all squared χ values for a given site. An average χ2 below 1.0 indicates that the √(HPHT+r2) values are too large. Conversely, values above 1.0 mean that this standard deviation is underestimated. The bias is a statistic of the posterior residuals (final modeled values - measured values). The bias is the mean of these residuals.

Table 1: Summary of observing sites used in CarbonTracker Europe and assimilation performance.
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
CGO surface-flask NOAA Australia 40°41'S, 144°41'E, 94 masl 591 582 +0.50 +0.12 +0.14± 0.39 +0.44± 0.30 -0.10± 0.30 +0.72 CGO
ACG aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 65° 0'N, 165° 0'W, 0 masl 99 0 +1000.00 +2.90 -0.41± 3.42 -0.04± 4.04 +nan± nan -99.00 ACG
MEX surface-flask NOAA Mexico 18°59'N, 97°19'W, 4464 masl 36 36 +2.50 +0.32 +0.80± 1.16 +1.26± 1.36 +0.18± 0.61 +0.28 MEX
IZO surface-flask NOAA Spain 28°19'N, 16°30'W, 2372 masl 711 0 +1000.00 +0.15 +0.58± 1.04 +0.59± 1.04 +0.58± 1.06 -99.00 IZO
HNP surface-insitu EC Canada 43°37'N, 79°23'W, 87 masl 528 0 +1000.00 +10.50 -2.09±10.54 +nan± nan -2.55±11.32 -99.00 HNP
MVY surface-insitu NOAA United States 41°20'N, 70°34'W, 0 masl 63987 0 +1000.00 +4.22 +1.08± 6.63 +0.68± 9.50 +1.22± 4.80 -99.00 MVY
CPT surface-flask NOAA South Africa 34°21'S, 18°29'E, 230 masl 17 17 +1.50 +0.30 +0.01± 0.80 +0.69± 0.38 -0.47± 0.76 +0.37 CPT
HIL aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 40° 4'N, 87°55'W, 201 masl 2196 0 +1000.00 +2.25 -0.03± 2.42 -0.21± 3.27 +0.15± 1.72 -99.00 HIL
BHD surface-flask SIO_CO2 New Zealand 41°24'S, 174°52'E, 85 masl 161 0 +1000.00 +0.43 +0.70± 1.18 +1.08± 1.02 +0.39± 1.31 -99.00 BHD
ACT aircraft-pfp NOAA United States Variable 128 0 +1000.00 +5.12 -9.73±27.14 -9.73±27.14 +nan± nan -99.00 ACT
USH surface-flask NOAA Argentina 54°51'S, 68°19'W, 12 masl 243 228 +0.75 +0.17 -0.01± 0.50 -0.03± 0.47 +0.04± 0.52 +0.45 USH
ASK surface-flask NOAA Algeria 23°16'N, 5°38'E, 2710 masl 41 41 +0.75 +0.16 -0.27± 0.51 -0.42± 0.43 -0.12± 0.60 +0.62 ASK
IZO surface-flask NOAA Spain 28°19'N, 16°30'W, 2372 masl 46 0 +1000.00 +0.15 +0.76± 1.08 +1.09± 1.07 +0.62± 1.09 -99.00 IZO
INX02 surface-insitu PSU United States 39°48'N, 86° 1'W, 266 masl 10909 0 +1000.00 +9.55 -1.56± 9.31 -2.46±13.20 -1.30± 6.38 -99.00 INX02
BMW surface-flask NOAA United Kingdom 32°16'N, 64°53'W, 30 masl 586 564 +1.51 +0.60 +0.61± 1.11 +0.62± 1.07 +0.61± 1.09 +0.79 BMW
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
ALT surface-flask NOAA Canada 82°27'N, 62°30'W, 190 masl 44 0 +1000.00 +0.56 +0.27± 0.75 -0.04± 0.82 +0.42± 0.65 -99.00 ALT
CRV surface-pfp NOAA United States 64°59'N, 147°36'W, 611 masl 180 0 +1000.00 +2.29 +0.72± 3.56 +2.50± 4.22 -0.20± 2.01 -99.00 CRV
ALT surface-flask CSIRO Canada 82°27'N, 62°30'W, 190 masl 599 0 +1000.00 +0.46 +0.16± 0.67 +0.08± 0.72 +0.28± 0.65 -99.00 ALT
UTMSA tower-insitu U-ATAQ United States 40°39'N, 111°53'W, 1315 masl 22457 0 +1000.00 +5.46 -10.54±21.45 -8.13±18.32 -12.63±24.26 -99.00 UTMSA
SSL surface-insitu UBA-SCHAU Germany 47°55'N, 7°55'E, 1205 masl 138848 0 +1000.27 +2.81 -0.48± 4.78 -0.05± 5.97 -0.76± 3.80 -99.00 SSL
WKT tower-insitu NOAA United States 31°19'N, 97°20'W, 251 masl 112078 18423 +5.98 +2.96 +0.04± 2.46 -0.04± 2.40 +0.11± 2.48 +0.25 WKT
RBA surface-insitu NCAR United States 36°28'N, 109° 6'W, 2982 masl 25269 0 +1000.00 +0.35 -0.02± 1.19 -0.04± 1.37 -0.05± 1.13 -99.00 RBA
ETL aircraft-pfp NOAA Canada 54°21'N, 104°59'W, 492 masl 2764 0 +1000.00 +1.33 +0.35± 1.87 +0.99± 2.66 +0.07± 1.09 -99.00 ETL
SGP aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 36°36'N, 97°29'W, 314 masl 6218 0 +1000.00 +2.48 +0.19± 2.52 +0.09± 3.06 +0.35± 1.74 -99.00 SGP
SNP tower-insitu NOAA United States 38°37'N, 78°21'W, 1008 masl 64197 10421 +7.93 +3.72 +0.12± 4.05 +1.68± 4.76 -0.94± 3.29 +0.41 SNP
PAL surface-flask NOAA Finland 67°58'N, 24° 7'E, 565 masl 656 0 +1000.00 +2.58 -0.48± 3.55 -0.55± 4.35 -0.37± 3.20 -99.00 PAL
BGI aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 42°49'N, 94°25'W, 355 masl 357 0 +1000.00 +2.77 +0.31± 2.89 +0.55± 3.91 +0.24± 1.59 -99.00 BGI
CAR aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 40°38'N, 104°20'W, 1488 masl 228 0 +1000.00 +0.80 -0.01± 2.26 +0.02± 2.30 +0.19± 1.34 -99.00 CAR
SSC surface-insitu ICTA-UAB Spain 38°18'N, 2°35'W, 1349 masl 16769 0 +1000.00 +0.95 +0.19± 3.45 -0.74± 3.15 +1.49± 3.02 -99.00 SSC
SMO surface-insitu NOAA American Samoa 14°15'S, 170°34'W, 42 masl 128879 17885 +1.41 +0.11 -0.10± 0.52 +0.26± 0.35 -0.41± 0.46 +0.18 SMO
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
HUN tower-insitu HMS Hungary 46°57'N, 16°39'E, 248 masl 125871 0 +1000.00 +10.34 -1.19± 8.20 -2.19± 9.61 -0.27± 6.95 -99.00 HUN
AMT tower-insitu NOAA United States 45° 2'N, 68°41'W, 53 masl 102601 16833 +5.97 +7.79 +0.06± 2.50 +0.47± 3.26 -0.19± 1.90 +0.26 AMT
LEW surface-pfp NOAA United States 40°57'N, 76°53'W, 161 masl 333 0 +1000.00 +6.21 -0.87± 7.62 -1.45±10.16 -0.57± 5.16 -99.00 LEW
HIP aircraft-insitu HU United States Variable 130016 0 +1000.00 +0.47 +0.10± 1.25 +0.29± 1.33 -0.09± 1.14 -99.00 HIP
SMO surface-flask SIO American Samoa 14°15'S, 170°34'W, 42 masl 466 0 +1000.00 +0.11 -0.16± 0.79 +0.23± 0.57 -0.48± 0.83 -99.00 SMO
SYO surface-flask NOAA Japan 69° 1'S, 39°35'E, 14 masl 2 2 +0.50 +0.10 -0.30± 0.17 +nan± nan -0.30± 0.17 +0.49 SYO
CMA aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 38°50'N, 74°19'W, 0 masl 174 0 +1000.00 +1.73 -0.16± 3.18 -0.54± 4.27 -0.01± 1.45 -99.00 CMA
GPA surface-flask CSIRO Australia 12°15'S, 131° 3'E, 25 masl 59 0 +1000.00 +0.96 +1.14± 2.76 +1.22± 2.66 +0.96± 2.41 -99.00 GPA
AMT surface-pfp NOAA United States 45° 2'N, 68°41'W, 53 masl 1307 0 +1000.00 +4.11 -0.29± 2.63 -0.06± 3.61 -0.39± 2.04 -99.00 AMT
VAC surface-insitu ICTA-UAB Spain 42°53'N, 3°13'W, 1102 masl 17896 0 +1000.00 +2.20 -0.79± 3.47 -1.12± 4.56 -0.32± 2.50 -99.00 VAC
CGO surface-flask SIO Australia 40°41'S, 144°41'E, 94 masl 347 0 +1000.00 +0.12 +0.34± 0.40 +0.65± 0.29 +0.10± 0.31 -99.00 CGO
FWI aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 44°40'N, 90°58'W, 334 masl 378 0 +1000.00 +2.52 +0.17± 2.99 -0.05± 3.67 +0.73± 2.72 -99.00 FWI
OMP surface-insitu OSU United States 44°30'N, 123°33'W, 1249 masl 88898 0 +1000.00 +1.48 +1.14± 3.31 +2.01± 4.31 +0.56± 2.11 -99.00 OMP
RGL tower-insitu UNIVBRIS United Kingdom 51°60'N, 2°32'W, 204 masl 32310 0 +1000.00 +5.56 -0.98± 6.99 -2.16± 8.16 +0.34± 5.63 -99.00 RGL
WGC surface-pfp NOAA United States 38°16'N, 121°29'W, 0 masl 2036 0 +1000.00 +8.63 -1.93± 9.00 +1.87± 7.52 -4.63± 9.77 -99.00 WGC
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
SGP aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 36°36'N, 97°29'W, 314 masl 35 0 +1000.00 +2.20 -0.27± 1.16 +nan± nan -0.02± 1.16 -99.00 SGP
CHM surface-insitu EC Canada 49°41'N, 74°18'W, 393 masl 24321 4183 +5.33 +3.97 -0.05± 2.08 +0.57± 2.48 -0.23± 2.00 +0.25 CHM
ZEP surface-insitu NILU Norway and Sweden 78°54'N, 11°53'E, 474 masl 8346 0 +1000.00 +0.52 +0.45± 1.20 -0.10± 1.32 +0.76± 1.09 -99.00 ZEP
TOM aircraft-insitu NOAA United States Variable 23993 0 +1000.00 +0.66 -0.45± 1.30 -0.45± 1.30 +nan± nan -99.00 TOM
ACR surface-insitu PSU United States 35°56'N, 84°20'W, 372 masl 9073 0 +1000.00 +15.56 -3.10±17.43 -6.23±22.73 -1.32±11.92 -99.00 ACR
SCT tower-insitu NOAA United States 33°24'N, 81°50'W, 115 masl 69039 11240 +5.96 +5.40 +0.07± 3.15 +0.13± 3.53 -0.09± 2.90 +0.43 SCT
CON aircraft-insitu NIES Multiple Variable 2754808 0 +1018.91 +0.34 +0.15± 1.54 -0.00± 1.78 +0.20± 1.37 -99.00 CON
ACG aircraft-pfp NOAA United States Variable 1545 0 +1000.00 +1.17 +0.13± 2.03 +0.24± 2.38 +0.35± 1.36 -99.00 ACG
SONGNEX2015 aircraft-insitu NOAA-CSD United States Variable 42659 0 +1000.00 +1.95 +0.18± 2.00 +nan± nan +0.18± 2.00 -99.00 SONGNEX2015
BCK surface-insitu EC Canada 62°48'N, 116° 3'W, 179 masl 43728 7767 +5.49 +3.17 +0.03± 1.58 -0.10± 2.55 +0.09± 1.19 +0.15 BCK
LARC aircraft-insitu NASA-LaRC United States Variable 21114 0 +1000.00 +0.84 -2.18±15.27 -2.18±15.27 +nan± nan -99.00 LARC
PV surface-insitu CALTECH United States 33°45'N, 118°21'W, 320 masl 25337 0 +1000.00 +1.93 +9.20±12.06 +10.03± 9.11 +8.48±13.69 -99.00 PV
MRC tower-insitu PSU United States 41°42'N, 76° 0'W, -9999999999999999455752309870428160 masl 66938 0 +1000.00 +8.34 -2.37± 8.44 -3.64±10.86 -1.12± 5.25 -99.00 MRC
BRW surface-insitu NOAA United States 71°19'N, 156°37'W, 11 masl 135839 15197 +1.36 +1.42 +0.13± 0.67 +0.32± 0.79 +0.02± 0.61 +0.72 BRW
TAB aircraft-pfp IPEN Brazil 5°57'S, 70° 4'W, -9999999999999999455752309870428160 masl 463 0 +1000.00 +0.87 -0.09± 3.61 -0.21± 4.83 +0.04± 1.91 -99.00 TAB
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
NWR surface-insitu NCAR United States 40° 3'N, 105°35'W, 3523 masl 72734 0 +1000.00 +0.53 +0.07± 1.61 +0.25± 2.11 -0.00± 1.18 -99.00 NWR
BNE aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 40°48'N, 97°11'W, 465 masl 1080 0 +1000.00 +2.29 +0.14± 3.19 +0.41± 3.37 +0.34± 1.84 -99.00 BNE
UTMUR tower-insitu U-ATAQ United States 40°39'N, 111°53'W, 1315 masl 68796 0 +1000.00 +4.88 -23.88±32.49 -17.42±23.19 -29.44±38.05 -99.00 UTMUR
NHA aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 42°57'N, 70°38'W, 0 masl 98 0 +1000.00 +1.92 +0.37± 2.23 +0.41± 2.63 +0.46± 0.96 -99.00 NHA
SMR tower-insitu UHELS Finland 61°51'N, 24°18'E, 181 masl 31099 0 +1000.00 +5.34 -0.58± 6.70 -2.56± 9.10 +0.84± 4.94 -99.00 SMR
MKN surface-flask NOAA Kenya 0° 4'S, 37°18'E, 3644 masl 138 138 +2.50 +0.22 +1.62± 1.97 +2.35± 2.18 +1.28± 1.54 +1.05 MKN
CAR aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 40°38'N, 104°20'W, 1488 masl 5474 0 +1000.00 +0.47 +0.37± 1.12 +0.20± 1.34 +0.54± 0.90 -99.00 CAR
TAC surface-flask NOAA United Kingdom 52°31'N, 1° 8'E, 56 masl 48 0 +1000.00 +2.63 +0.59± 5.42 +2.26± 4.39 -1.46± 6.25 -99.00 TAC
HUN tower-insitu HMS Hungary 46°57'N, 16°39'E, 248 masl 125564 0 +1000.00 +11.11 -8.07±16.93 -13.52±22.71 -3.91±10.18 -99.00 HUN
ACT aircraft-insitu NASA-LaRC United States Variable 82471 0 +1000.00 +4.12 -1.29± 4.60 -1.29± 4.60 +nan± nan -99.00 ACT
INX05 surface-insitu PSU United States 39°54'N, 86°12'W, 251 masl 5880 0 +1000.00 +12.84 -1.58±13.83 -2.30±15.67 -0.93±10.25 -99.00 INX05
ALT surface-insitu EC Canada 82°27'N, 62°30'W, 190 masl 130468 25148 +1.64 +0.45 +0.08± 0.62 +0.03± 0.70 +0.12± 0.60 +0.27 ALT
GCI04 tower-insitu PSU United States 33°11'N, 85°53'W, 328 masl 11596 0 +1000.00 +6.25 -1.63± 7.89 -2.63± 8.36 -1.28± 7.72 -99.00 GCI04
INX09 surface-insitu PSU United States 39°52'N, 85°45'W, 277 masl 4739 0 +1000.00 +10.63 -2.03±12.83 -2.92±15.68 -0.64± 6.75 -99.00 INX09
LARC aircraft-insitu NASA-LaRC United States Variable 25077 0 +1000.00 +2.64 -2.82± 8.45 -2.82± 8.45 +nan± nan -99.00 LARC
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
KUM surface-flask SIO_CO2 United States 19°31'N, 154°49'W, 3 masl 862 0 +1000.00 +0.11 -0.34± 2.00 -0.37± 2.06 -0.27± 1.92 -99.00 KUM
WBI tower-insitu NOAA United States 41°43'N, 91°21'W, 241 masl 9312 1430 +6.00 +6.48 -0.08± 3.34 +0.34± 4.22 -0.32± 2.80 +0.61 WBI
SAM aircraft-pfp NOAA United States Variable 119 0 +1000.00 +0.93 -0.12± 1.69 +nan± nan -0.12± 1.69 -99.00 SAM
CHL surface-insitu EC Canada 58°45'N, 94° 4'W, 29 masl 2419 500 +5.63 +2.21 +0.51± 0.97 +nan± nan +0.51± 0.97 +0.07 CHL
WKT surface-pfp NOAA United States 31°19'N, 97°20'W, 251 masl 148 0 +1000.00 +3.38 -0.35± 2.87 +0.21± 2.63 -0.67± 3.13 -99.00 WKT
THD surface-flask NOAA United States 41° 3'N, 124° 9'W, 107 masl 21 21 +5.00 +0.38 +1.08± 1.01 +1.84± 0.00 +1.05± 0.95 +0.09 THD
SPO surface-flask SIO_CO2 United States 89°59'S, 24°48'W, 2810 masl 412 0 +1000.00 +0.10 -0.02± 1.29 +0.22± 0.80 -0.13± 0.78 -99.00 SPO
CON aircraft-flask NIES Multiple Variable 3655 0 +1000.00 +0.14 -0.02± 0.76 +0.12± 0.66 -0.11± 0.78 -99.00 CON
NMB surface-flask NOAA Namibia 23°35'S, 15° 2'E, 456 masl 39 39 +1.50 +0.59 +0.45± 1.38 +0.82± 0.84 -0.71± 1.08 +0.94 NMB
DND aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 47°30'N, 99°14'W, 472 masl 2123 0 +1000.00 +1.72 +0.32± 2.29 +0.87± 3.33 +0.11± 1.35 -99.00 DND
ACT aircraft-insitu NASA-LaRC United States Variable 135475 0 +1000.07 +3.56 +0.45± 3.46 +nan± nan +0.56± 2.69 -99.00 ACT
CRV tower-insitu NOAA United States 64°59'N, 147°36'W, 611 masl 9035 0 +1000.00 +2.52 +0.27± 3.32 +1.09± 4.70 +0.03± 2.07 -99.00 CRV
KZM surface-flask NOAA Kazakhstan 43°15'N, 77°53'E, 2519 masl 411 391 +2.50 +0.92 +0.12± 2.23 +0.67± 2.09 -0.61± 1.80 +0.84 KZM
WBI surface-pfp NOAA United States 41°43'N, 91°21'W, 241 masl 2112 0 +1000.00 +6.49 -0.14± 4.30 +0.31± 6.22 -0.40± 2.53 -99.00 WBI
LARC aircraft-insitu NASA-LaRC United States Variable 42014 0 +1000.00 +0.98 -1.33± 1.10 -1.33± 1.10 +nan± nan -99.00 LARC
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
WAO surface-insitu UEA United Kingdom 52°57'N, 1° 7'E, 20 masl 51100 0 +1000.00 +4.61 -1.92± 7.17 -2.91± 8.27 -1.14± 6.14 -99.00 WAO
HFM aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 42°32'N, 72°10'W, 340 masl 1620 0 +1000.00 +2.06 +0.46± 2.45 +0.36± 3.72 +0.42± 1.55 -99.00 HFM
UTDBK tower-insitu U-ATAQ United States 40°32'N, 112° 4'W, 1583 masl 69223 0 +1000.00 +1.73 -2.33± 7.46 -2.48± 6.36 -2.25± 8.55 -99.00 UTDBK
SPO surface-flask NOAA United States 89°59'S, 24°48'W, 2810 masl 874 0 +1000.00 +0.09 +0.15± 0.29 +0.40± 0.21 -0.02± 0.23 -99.00 SPO
INX07 surface-insitu PSU United States 39°46'N, 86°16'W, 241 masl 6391 0 +1000.00 +13.96 -5.21±15.54 -6.70±17.58 -4.02±11.98 -99.00 INX07
LEF surface-pfp NOAA United States 45°57'N, 90°16'W, 472 masl 151 0 +1000.00 +4.78 -0.56± 2.71 -1.32± 3.97 -0.22± 1.50 -99.00 LEF
SCA aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 32°46'N, 79°33'W, 0 masl 107 0 +1000.00 +1.18 +0.28± 1.52 +0.49± 3.17 +0.35± 0.90 -99.00 SCA
UUM surface-flask NOAA Mongolia 44°27'N, 111° 6'E, 1007 masl 39 39 +2.50 +1.18 +0.03± 1.52 -0.22± 1.15 -0.12± 1.30 +0.43 UUM
CHR surface-flask NOAA Republic of Kiribati 1°42'N, 157° 9'W, 0 masl 5 5 +0.75 +0.20 -0.28± 0.54 -0.28± 0.54 +nan± nan +0.36 CHR
ESP surface-flask CSIRO Canada 49°23'N, 126°33'W, 7 masl 28 0 +1000.00 +0.82 -0.10± 1.77 +1.00± 1.37 -1.19± 1.53 -99.00 ESP
RYO surface-insitu JMA Japan 39° 2'N, 141°49'E, 260 masl 66898 0 +1000.00 +1.34 -0.27± 2.42 +0.48± 3.62 -0.21± 1.79 -99.00 RYO
BHD surface-flask NOAA New Zealand 41°24'S, 174°52'E, 85 masl 8 8 +0.75 +0.16 -0.23± 0.64 +0.18± 0.17 -0.60± 0.72 +0.83 BHD
WKT surface-pfp NOAA United States 31°19'N, 97°20'W, 251 masl 2107 0 +1000.00 +3.33 -0.23± 2.98 -0.21± 3.30 -0.18± 2.65 -99.00 WKT
ACT aircraft-insitu NASA-LaRC United States Variable 70367 0 +1000.00 +4.63 -1.46± 6.56 -1.46± 6.56 +nan± nan -99.00 ACT
ALT surface-flask SIO_CO2 Canada 82°27'N, 62°30'W, 190 masl 716 0 +1000.00 +0.49 -0.74± 6.68 -0.32± 1.55 -1.24± 9.37 -99.00 ALT
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
NMB surface-flask NOAA Namibia 23°35'S, 15° 2'E, 456 masl 376 359 +1.50 +0.51 -0.15± 1.18 +0.41± 0.94 -0.76± 1.06 +0.72 NMB
STM surface-flask NOAA Norway 66° 0'N, 2° 0'E, 0 masl 907 849 +1.50 +0.94 +0.09± 0.98 +0.25± 1.04 +0.01± 0.94 +0.53 STM
CHR surface-flask SIO_CO2 Republic of Kiribati 1°42'N, 157° 9'W, 0 masl 485 0 +1000.00 +0.15 -2.21± 7.38 -1.68± 3.81 -2.42± 9.23 -99.00 CHR
MBO surface-pfp NOAA United States 43°59'N, 121°41'W, 2731 masl 161 0 +1000.00 +0.77 -0.04± 1.84 +0.01± 2.41 -0.06± 1.04 -99.00 MBO
PDM surface-flask LSCE France 42°56'N, 0° 8'E, 2877 masl 389 0 +1000.00 +0.42 -0.56± 2.27 -0.08± 2.35 -0.87± 2.11 -99.00 PDM
UTRPK tower-insitu U-ATAQ United States 40°48'N, 111°56'W, 1288 masl 44324 0 +1000.00 +4.71 -22.54±32.14 -20.26±26.98 -25.83±38.33 -99.00 UTRPK
MQA surface-flask CSIRO Australia 54°29'S, 158°58'E, 6 masl 493 493 +0.58 +0.15 +0.04± 0.41 +0.25± 0.43 -0.11± 0.34 +0.61 MQA
TTA tower-insitu UNIVBRIS United Kingdom 56°33'N, 2°59'W, 400 masl 18693 0 +1000.00 +1.20 -0.14± 3.12 +0.29± 3.58 -0.41± 2.57 -99.00 TTA
FNE surface-insitu EC Canada 58°50'N, 122°34'W, 361 masl 3459 0 +1000.00 +4.81 -1.46± 7.13 +nan± nan -0.68± 5.94 -99.00 FNE
NWR surface-flask NOAA United States 40° 3'N, 105°35'W, 3523 masl 816 0 +1000.00 +0.52 +0.42± 1.80 +1.46± 1.98 -0.18± 1.40 -99.00 NWR
BIR surface-insitu NILU Norway 58°23'N, 8°15'E, 219 masl 8673 0 +1000.00 +12.37 -2.66±13.33 -7.67±18.81 +0.03± 6.69 -99.00 BIR
USH surface-flask NOAA Argentina 54°51'S, 68°19'W, 12 masl 33 33 +0.75 +0.20 -0.20± 0.97 -0.05± 0.43 -0.06± 0.89 +1.75 USH
INU surface-insitu EC Canada 68°19'N, 133°32'W, 113 masl 3758 771 +5.61 +3.13 +0.22± 1.08 -0.28± 0.80 +0.34± 1.04 +0.10 INU
MBO surface-pfp NOAA United States 43°59'N, 121°41'W, 2731 masl 869 0 +1000.00 +0.81 -0.26± 1.72 -0.42± 1.95 -0.14± 1.36 -99.00 MBO
SMO surface-insitu NOAA American Samoa 14°15'S, 170°34'W, 42 masl 8736 1160 +1.43 +0.11 -0.20± 0.65 +0.40± 0.27 -0.67± 0.51 +0.25 SMO
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
AOZ surface-insitu PSU United States 38°45'N, 92°12'W, 219 masl 21628 0 +1000.00 +13.17 -2.28±12.48 -7.55±19.30 +0.75± 8.10 -99.00 AOZ
NWR surface-flask NOAA United States 40° 3'N, 105°35'W, 3523 masl 46 0 +1000.00 +0.51 +0.73± 1.70 +1.79± 1.65 -0.04± 1.16 -99.00 NWR
PAL surface-insitu FMI Finland 67°58'N, 24° 7'E, 565 masl 95920 0 +1000.00 +2.49 -0.25± 2.84 +0.05± 3.76 -0.22± 2.26 -99.00 PAL
OYQ surface-insitu OSU United States 44°40'N, 124° 4'W, 116 masl 35249 0 +1000.00 +4.81 -0.62± 7.04 -2.38± 5.52 +0.40± 7.87 -99.00 OYQ
ALT surface-flask NOAA Canada 82°27'N, 62°30'W, 190 masl 949 0 +1000.00 +0.50 +0.08± 0.81 -0.02± 0.81 +0.14± 0.71 -99.00 ALT
PSA surface-flask NOAA United States 64°55'S, 64° 0'W, 10 masl 811 802 +0.50 +0.29 +0.01± 0.29 +0.12± 0.28 -0.04± 0.26 +0.38 PSA
MLO surface-flask NOAA United States 19°32'N, 155°35'W, 3397 masl 55 0 +1000.00 +0.11 +0.42± 0.64 +0.27± 0.43 +0.60± 0.82 -99.00 MLO
ONG surface-insitu OSU United States 43°28'N, 119°41'W, 1398 masl 80497 0 +1000.00 +2.33 -0.51± 3.71 -0.71± 4.26 -0.36± 2.99 -99.00 ONG
MRC aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 41°42'N, 76° 0'W, -9999999999999999455752309870428160 masl 77 0 +1000.00 +6.49 +5.51± 4.91 +11.99± 6.12 +nan± nan -99.00 MRC
KUM surface-flask SIO United States 19°31'N, 154°49'W, 3 masl 567 0 +1000.00 +0.11 +0.07± 1.05 +0.11± 1.01 +0.09± 1.13 -99.00 KUM
SMR tower-insitu UHELS Finland 61°51'N, 24°18'E, 181 masl 31192 0 +1000.00 +5.07 +0.00± 5.84 -1.19± 7.79 +1.01± 4.53 -99.00 SMR
MLO surface-insitu NOAA United States 19°32'N, 155°35'W, 3397 masl 135512 16990 +1.42 +0.10 +0.17± 0.59 -0.06± 0.55 +0.31± 0.59 +0.23 MLO
SMO surface-flask NOAA American Samoa 14°15'S, 170°34'W, 42 masl 1356 0 +1000.00 +0.11 -0.20± 1.30 +0.07± 1.95 -0.47± 0.76 -99.00 SMO
ASK surface-flask NOAA Algeria 23°16'N, 5°38'E, 2710 masl 767 754 +0.75 +0.13 -0.09± 0.62 -0.19± 0.59 +0.00± 0.65 +0.71 ASK
LARC aircraft-insitu NASA-LaRC United States Variable 26822 0 +1000.00 +5.00 -4.64± 9.74 +nan± nan -4.64± 9.74 -99.00 LARC
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
BRM tower-insitu KUP Switzerland 47°11'N, 8°11'E, 797 masl 33427 0 +1000.00 +6.69 +2.17± 8.64 +0.68± 9.88 +3.19± 7.71 -99.00 BRM
NWR surface-pfp NOAA United States 40° 3'N, 105°35'W, 3523 masl 314 0 +1000.00 +0.66 +0.54± 2.00 +1.65± 2.29 +0.05± 1.47 -99.00 NWR
ETL surface-insitu EC Canada 54°21'N, 104°59'W, 492 masl 91947 15100 +5.42 +7.26 -0.07± 2.00 -0.05± 2.85 -0.05± 1.60 +0.27 ETL
COB aircraft-insitu HU N/A Variable 22629 0 +1000.00 +2.43 +0.54± 2.80 +0.62± 3.10 +nan± nan -99.00 COB
TEXAQS2006 aircraft-insitu NOAA-CSD United States Variable 32654 0 +1000.00 +3.08 -1.71± 7.82 -1.17± 4.95 +nan± nan -99.00 TEXAQS2006
ZEP surface-flask NOAA Norway and Sweden 78°54'N, 11°53'E, 474 masl 896 856 +1.50 +0.57 +0.16± 0.88 +0.31± 0.97 +0.02± 0.84 +0.47 ZEP
DRP shipboard-flask NOAA N/A 59° 0'S, 64°41'W, 0 masl 7 7 +0.50 +0.17 -0.05± 0.26 +0.41± 0.00 -0.18± 0.16 +0.55 DRP
PAL surface-flask NOAA Finland 67°58'N, 24° 7'E, 565 masl 33 0 +1000.00 +2.49 -0.62± 3.80 -1.55± 5.08 +0.47± 1.70 -99.00 PAL
SENEX2013 aircraft-insitu NOAA-CSD United States Variable 39612 0 +1000.00 +5.00 +0.30± 9.76 +0.32± 9.85 +nan± nan -99.00 SENEX2013
CPT surface-flask NOAA South Africa 34°21'S, 18°29'E, 230 masl 148 142 +1.52 +0.32 +0.05± 0.66 +0.46± 0.56 -0.25± 0.58 +0.21 CPT
INU surface-insitu EC Canada 68°19'N, 133°32'W, 113 masl 40567 7329 +5.48 +3.76 -0.12± 1.72 -0.35± 2.51 +0.03± 1.20 +0.21 INU
KCMP tower-insitu UofMN United States 44°41'N, 93° 4'W, 290 masl 9040 0 +1000.00 +7.18 -0.53± 7.52 -1.37±10.26 +0.14± 4.93 -99.00 KCMP
BRM tower-insitu KUP Switzerland 47°11'N, 8°11'E, 797 masl 33399 0 +1000.00 +9.09 -0.52±11.79 -2.14±12.55 +0.50±11.20 -99.00 BRM
SUM surface-flask NOAA Greenland 72°36'N, 38°25'W, 3209 masl 739 721 +0.75 +0.24 +0.11± 0.70 +0.37± 0.75 -0.05± 0.66 +1.08 SUM
WLG surface-flask NOAA Peoples Republic of China 36°17'N, 100°54'E, 3810 masl 710 656 +1.53 +0.92 +0.02± 1.36 +0.16± 1.42 +0.20± 1.24 +0.86 WLG
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
HTM tower-insitu LUND-CEC Sweden 56° 6'N, 13°25'E, 115 masl 6783 0 +1000.00 +4.17 -3.00± 7.43 -4.31± 9.92 -2.10± 4.92 -99.00 HTM
BRM tower-insitu KUP Switzerland 47°11'N, 8°11'E, 797 masl 33190 0 +1000.00 +7.55 +1.29± 9.80 -0.12±10.71 +2.24± 9.14 -99.00 BRM
CBY surface-insitu EC Canada 69° 1'N, 105° 3'W, 35 masl 3245 633 +5.53 +2.15 +0.15± 0.78 +nan± nan +0.12± 0.79 +0.05 CBY
BAL surface-flask NOAA Poland 55°21'N, 17°13'E, 3 masl 1004 964 +5.02 +4.52 -0.95± 3.53 -1.17± 3.88 -0.82± 3.36 +0.49 BAL
HPB surface-insitu HPB Germany 47°48'N, 11° 1'E, 934 masl 11475 0 +1000.00 +8.89 +1.55± 8.88 +0.68±10.70 +2.57± 6.37 -99.00 HPB
EST surface-insitu EC Canada 51°40'N, 110°12'W, 707 masl 3452 579 +5.38 +5.18 +0.13± 1.87 +nan± nan +0.14± 1.83 +0.28 EST
ICE surface-flask NOAA Iceland 63°24'N, 20°17'W, 118 masl 473 439 +1.50 +0.45 -0.12± 0.78 +0.07± 0.92 -0.23± 0.68 +0.30 ICE
RKW surface-insitu PSU United States 41°17'N, 89°58'W, 247 masl 16243 0 +1000.00 +7.91 -1.48± 8.47 -2.43±10.96 +0.69± 4.51 -99.00 RKW
WKT tower-insitu NOAA United States 31°19'N, 97°20'W, 251 masl 8646 1355 +5.97 +3.00 -0.00± 2.63 +0.16± 2.60 -0.04± 2.70 +0.34 WKT
KZD surface-flask NOAA Kazakhstan 44° 5'N, 76°52'E, 595 masl 451 425 +2.50 +2.25 -0.35± 2.49 -0.86± 2.86 -0.05± 2.00 +1.04 KZD
MID surface-flask NOAA United States 28°13'N, 177°23'W, 11 masl 786 773 +1.50 +0.21 +0.60± 0.96 +0.98± 0.96 +0.44± 0.94 +0.62 MID
LARC aircraft-insitu NASA-LaRC United States Variable 50121 0 +1000.00 +0.47 +0.61± 1.79 +nan± nan +0.61± 1.79 -99.00 LARC
IZO surface-insitu AEMET Spain 28°19'N, 16°30'W, 2372 masl 125005 65386 +2.56 +0.15 +0.05± 0.77 +0.02± 0.83 +0.09± 0.78 +0.10 IZO
EIC surface-flask NOAA Chile 27°10'S, 109°26'W, 47 masl 14 14 +1.50 +0.13 -1.34± 1.02 +nan± nan -1.34± 1.02 +1.30 EIC
LLB surface-flask NOAA Canada 54°57'N, 112°27'W, 540 masl 173 0 +1000.00 +5.81 -0.33± 9.89 +1.45± 9.10 -1.14±10.86 -99.00 LLB
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
AAO aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 40° 3'N, 88°22'W, 230 masl 3202 0 +1000.00 +4.92 -0.21± 5.33 -0.43± 6.88 +0.24± 2.25 -99.00 AAO
CES tower-insitu ECN the Netherlands 51°58'N, 4°56'E, -1 masl 109415 0 +1000.00 +6.11 +0.13±10.26 +0.77±10.35 -0.20±10.50 -99.00 CES
HFM tower-insitu HU United States 42°32'N, 72°10'W, 340 masl 33283 0 +1000.00 +8.91 -0.91±10.77 -2.87±15.67 +0.53± 6.10 -99.00 HFM
SAN aircraft-pfp IPEN Brazil 2°51'S, 54°57'W, 78 masl 1101 1075 +2.00 +0.46 -0.21± 1.71 -0.14± 1.88 -0.12± 1.63 +0.99 SAN
SMO surface-flask SIO_CO2 American Samoa 14°15'S, 170°34'W, 42 masl 699 0 +1000.00 +0.11 -0.43± 6.41 -0.46± 9.62 -0.61± 1.81 -99.00 SMO
PUY surface-insitu LSCE France 45°46'N, 2°58'E, 1465 masl 116939 0 +1000.00 +2.30 -0.60± 4.01 +0.15± 4.97 -1.18± 3.10 -99.00 PUY
WBI tower-insitu NOAA United States 41°43'N, 91°21'W, 241 masl 75264 12110 +5.94 +5.93 +0.00± 3.05 +0.38± 3.93 -0.23± 2.42 +0.49 WBI
HUN tower-insitu HMS Hungary 46°57'N, 16°39'E, 248 masl 129355 0 +1000.00 +10.72 -3.10± 9.88 -5.17±12.14 -1.37± 7.66 -99.00 HUN
KUM surface-flask NOAA United States 19°31'N, 154°49'W, 3 masl 1124 1011 +0.90 +0.11 +0.00± 0.96 +0.02± 0.93 +0.05± 1.03 +1.29 KUM
MHD surface-flask NOAA Ireland 53°20'N, 9°54'W, 5 masl 36 33 +1.50 +1.33 +0.07± 1.17 -0.03± 1.51 +0.06± 0.65 +0.77 MHD
NOR tower-insitu LUND-CEC Sweden 60° 5'N, 17°29'E, 45 masl 17242 0 +1000.00 +3.23 -1.17± 5.32 -2.35± 7.34 -0.46± 3.77 -99.00 NOR
ETL aircraft-pfp NOAA Canada 54°21'N, 104°59'W, 492 masl 117 0 +1000.00 +1.64 +0.55± 2.34 +0.85± 2.80 -0.09± 0.73 -99.00 ETL
SIS surface-flask CSIRO Scotland 60° 5'N, 1°15'W, 30 masl 99 97 +1.51 +0.46 +0.74± 1.09 +1.47± 1.17 +0.12± 0.69 +0.98 SIS
BKT surface-flask NOAA Indonesia 0°12'S, 100°19'E, 845 masl 396 0 +1000.00 +0.58 +3.35± 4.24 +3.21± 4.98 +3.63± 3.67 -99.00 BKT
ABP surface-flask NOAA Brazil 12°46'S, 38°10'W, 1 masl 108 101 +1.50 +0.42 -0.70± 0.76 -0.25± 0.38 -1.18± 0.74 +0.59 ABP
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
ESP surface-insitu EC Canada 49°23'N, 126°33'W, 7 masl 58951 8566 +5.24 +3.72 -0.83± 2.39 -0.60± 2.90 -0.79± 1.97 +0.37 ESP
CRI surface-flask CSIRO India 15° 5'N, 73°50'E, 60 masl 147 0 +1000.00 +6.29 -3.67± 6.85 -0.61± 3.93 -5.99± 7.73 -99.00 CRI
AOA aircraft-flask JMA Japan Variable 1411 0 +1000.00 +0.17 +0.50± 1.01 +0.41± 1.16 +0.65± 0.96 -99.00 AOA
DVV tower-insitu PSU United States 36°42'N, 79°26'W, 277 masl 2609 0 +1000.00 +5.98 -0.04± 9.54 -2.96± 9.17 +1.35± 5.16 -99.00 DVV
CPS surface-insitu EC Canada 49°49'N, 74°59'W, 381 masl 2994 581 +5.49 +3.57 -0.07± 1.55 +nan± nan -0.17± 1.53 +0.08 CPS
BGU surface-flask LSCE Spain 41°58'N, 3°14'E, 11 masl 552 0 +1000.00 +2.96 +0.01± 4.45 -0.11± 4.59 +0.32± 4.16 -99.00 BGU
JFJ surface-insitu EMPA Switzerland 46°33'N, 7°59'E, 3570 masl 47491 7910 +2.95 +0.79 +0.15± 1.45 +0.29± 1.31 +0.08± 1.55 +0.31 JFJ
LEW surface-pfp NOAA United States 40°57'N, 76°53'W, 161 masl 119 0 +1000.00 +6.10 -2.56± 6.54 -2.81± 7.99 -3.04± 6.06 -99.00 LEW
MAA surface-flask CSIRO Australia 67°37'S, 62°52'E, 32 masl 407 407 +0.57 +0.10 +0.02± 0.30 +0.25± 0.26 -0.14± 0.24 +0.33 MAA
TGC aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 27°44'N, 96°52'W, 0 masl 2472 0 +1000.00 +0.73 +0.22± 1.42 +0.22± 1.35 +0.31± 1.38 -99.00 TGC
CDL surface-insitu EC Canada 53°59'N, 105° 7'W, 600 masl 66546 9865 +5.30 +9.75 -0.28± 2.14 +0.18± 2.60 -0.40± 1.92 +0.29 CDL
SPO surface-insitu NOAA United States 89°59'S, 24°48'W, 2810 masl 138734 22824 +0.98 +0.09 +0.06± 0.28 +0.30± 0.21 -0.12± 0.20 +0.10 SPO
HAA aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 21°14'N, 158°57'W, 3 masl 1797 0 +1000.00 +0.11 +0.43± 0.85 +0.41± 0.93 +0.48± 0.74 -99.00 HAA
SNP tower-insitu NOAA United States 38°37'N, 78°21'W, 1008 masl 9279 1440 +7.99 +3.82 +0.06± 4.17 +1.81± 4.85 -1.25± 3.08 +0.45 SNP
SCT surface-pfp NOAA United States 33°24'N, 81°50'W, 115 masl 175 0 +1000.00 +4.06 +0.05± 3.27 +0.73± 2.81 -0.34± 3.49 -99.00 SCT
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
SGP surface-insitu LBNL-ARM United States 36°36'N, 97°29'W, 314 masl 98597 16274 +5.98 +9.80 +0.08± 2.67 +0.04± 3.02 +0.12± 2.40 +0.33 SGP
KUM surface-flask NOAA United States 19°31'N, 154°49'W, 3 masl 65 65 +0.92 +0.12 +0.47± 1.36 +0.81± 0.83 +0.29± 1.69 +3.12 KUM
CRZ surface-flask NOAA France 46°26'S, 51°51'E, 197 masl 659 644 +0.50 +0.15 +0.17± 0.33 +0.33± 0.29 +0.03± 0.29 +0.57 CRZ
LEF tower-insitu NOAA United States 45°57'N, 90°16'W, 472 masl 9025 1395 +4.99 +4.53 +0.18± 2.21 +0.61± 2.98 -0.01± 1.60 +0.38 LEF
SGP surface-flask NOAA United States 36°36'N, 97°29'W, 314 masl 45 43 +3.00 +5.11 +0.01± 1.87 -0.54± 1.67 +0.33± 1.92 +0.50 SGP
HTM tower-insitu LUND-CEC Sweden 56° 6'N, 13°25'E, 115 masl 6779 0 +1000.00 +2.75 -1.26± 4.46 -1.17± 5.23 -1.42± 4.12 -99.00 HTM
LEF aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 45°57'N, 90°16'W, 472 masl 189 0 +1000.00 +3.07 -0.24± 2.20 -0.23± 2.64 -0.82± 1.54 -99.00 LEF
LLB surface-insitu EC Canada 54°57'N, 112°27'W, 540 masl 72146 7880 +5.22 +6.83 -0.39± 2.54 -0.45± 3.08 -0.38± 2.44 +0.52 LLB
INX03 surface-insitu PSU United States 39°47'N, 86°10'W, 226 masl 4540 0 +1000.00 +14.12 -8.80±17.98 -10.56±20.90 -7.33±14.51 -99.00 INX03
ALF aircraft-pfp IPEN Brazil 8°55'S, 56°47'W, -9999999999999999455752309870428160 masl 684 0 +1000.00 +0.79 -0.70± 2.66 -0.02± 2.24 -0.91± 2.76 -99.00 ALF
HUAC aircraft-insitu HU United States Variable 26468 0 +1000.00 +0.86 +0.34± 1.95 +0.12± 1.77 +0.39± 1.91 -99.00 HUAC
BAO surface-pfp NOAA United States 40° 3'N, 105° 0'W, 1584 masl 2671 0 +1000.00 +1.37 -2.19± 5.16 -0.89± 4.21 -3.35± 5.70 -99.00 BAO
COB aircraft-insitu HU N/A Variable 52160 0 +1000.00 +3.45 +0.29± 4.53 +0.41± 5.08 +nan± nan -99.00 COB
PFA aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 65° 4'N, 147°17'W, 210 masl 131 0 +1000.00 +1.92 +0.37± 2.36 +1.27± 2.60 -0.23± 2.62 -99.00 PFA
AMY surface-flask NOAA Republic of Korea 36°32'N, 126°20'E, 85 masl 29 0 +1000.00 +3.21 +1.85± 4.35 -0.04± 5.31 +3.46± 2.38 -99.00 AMY
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
TAP surface-flask NOAA Republic of Korea 36°44'N, 126° 8'E, 16 masl 787 690 +5.51 +1.68 -0.04± 3.93 +0.66± 4.94 -0.24± 2.98 +0.56 TAP
LEF tower-insitu NOAA United States 45°57'N, 90°16'W, 472 masl 131755 21726 +4.98 +4.43 +0.08± 2.20 +0.44± 2.83 -0.10± 1.70 +0.35 LEF
WGC surface-pfp NOAA United States 38°16'N, 121°29'W, 0 masl 107 0 +1000.00 +5.35 -3.18± 9.78 +1.08± 3.65 -6.15±12.51 -99.00 WGC
LARC aircraft-insitu NASA-LaRC United States Variable 44812 0 +1000.00 +0.38 +0.32± 1.72 +nan± nan +0.32± 1.72 -99.00 LARC
MLO surface-flask NOAA United States 19°32'N, 155°35'W, 3397 masl 1235 0 +1000.00 +0.11 +0.12± 0.61 +0.08± 0.67 +0.17± 0.59 -99.00 MLO
SUM surface-flask NOAA Greenland 72°36'N, 38°25'W, 3209 masl 27 27 +0.75 +0.21 +0.22± 0.58 +0.26± 0.39 +0.15± 0.65 +0.79 SUM
HPB surface-flask NOAA Germany 47°48'N, 11° 1'E, 936 masl 483 458 +5.00 +4.47 +0.67± 3.97 +0.94± 4.01 +0.39± 3.91 +0.64 HPB
CRZ surface-flask NOAA France 46°26'S, 51°51'E, 197 masl 30 30 +0.50 +0.20 +0.03± 0.34 +0.12± 0.28 -0.05± 0.40 +0.54 CRZ
OTA surface-flask CSIRO Australia 38°31'S, 142°49'E, 40 masl 139 0 +1000.00 +0.30 -1.38±19.85 -1.60±13.07 +2.46±17.63 -99.00 OTA
KAS surface-insitu AGH Poland 49°14'N, 19°59'E, 1989 masl 90147 0 +1000.00 +1.59 -0.25± 4.86 +1.76± 4.99 -1.71± 4.24 -99.00 KAS
GCI01 tower-insitu PSU United States 32°28'N, 92°17'W, 65 masl 7150 0 +1000.00 +14.82 -1.56±14.97 -1.40±18.79 -1.75±13.41 -99.00 GCI01
ABT surface-insitu EC Canada 49° 2'N, 122°22'W, 100 masl 14758 0 +1000.00 +15.30 -6.29±18.75 -10.08±17.96 -2.83±17.89 -99.00 ABT
ARCPAC2008 aircraft-insitu NOAA-CSD United States Variable 22588 0 +1000.00 +0.94 -0.01± 8.52 +nan± nan -0.01± 8.52 -99.00 ARCPAC2008
RGL tower-insitu UNIVBRIS United Kingdom 51°60'N, 2°32'W, 204 masl 32072 0 +1000.00 +3.44 -1.68± 5.47 -2.23± 6.39 -0.97± 4.55 -99.00 RGL
DSI surface-flask NOAA Taiwan 20°42'N, 116°44'E, 3 masl 244 0 +1000.00 +0.61 +1.75± 3.20 +2.05± 1.76 +1.83± 3.42 -99.00 DSI
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
AMT surface-pfp NOAA United States 45° 2'N, 68°41'W, 53 masl 133 0 +1000.00 +4.53 +0.29± 2.18 +0.68± 2.72 +0.08± 1.66 -99.00 AMT
SYO surface-insitu TU Japan 69° 1'S, 39°35'E, 14 masl 6150 0 +1000.00 +0.11 -0.00± 0.25 +0.18± 0.22 -0.12± 0.19 -99.00 SYO
RPB surface-flask NOAA Barbados 13°10'N, 59°26'W, 15 masl 817 791 +1.50 +0.28 -0.04± 0.69 +0.40± 0.66 -0.23± 0.57 +0.22 RPB
MSH surface-pfp NOAA United States 41°39'N, 70°30'W, 32 masl 105 0 +1000.00 +3.25 +1.15± 4.04 +3.41± 4.96 +0.26± 2.87 -99.00 MSH
BRW surface-flask NOAA United States 71°19'N, 156°37'W, 11 masl 52 0 +1000.00 +1.05 +0.05± 0.94 +0.37± 0.98 -0.27± 0.94 -99.00 BRW
FPK surface-insitu PSU United States 48°18'N, 105° 6'W, 634 masl 7733 0 +1000.00 +5.03 -2.47± 9.62 -8.01±18.57 -0.89± 5.33 -99.00 FPK
SCT tower-insitu NOAA United States 33°24'N, 81°50'W, 115 masl 9349 1440 +6.00 +5.51 +0.35± 3.26 +0.47± 3.24 +0.27± 3.22 +0.45 SCT
EEC surface-insitu ICTA-UAB Spain 36° 4'N, 5°40'W, 20 masl 15602 0 +1000.00 +1.46 -1.90± 6.93 -1.86± 6.26 -1.60± 7.03 -99.00 EEC
CRV aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 64°59'N, 147°36'W, 611 masl 2041 0 +1000.00 +2.81 -2.00±10.31 -1.34± 7.55 -0.22± 4.91 -99.00 CRV
POC shipboard-flask NOAA N/A Variable 2521 2467 +0.87 +0.27 -0.07± 0.64 +0.09± 0.62 -0.16± 0.62 +0.78 POC
OXK surface-flask NOAA Germany 50° 2'N, 11°49'E, 1022 masl 31 31 +5.00 +1.87 -1.76± 4.34 -1.18± 5.38 -2.44± 2.85 +0.78 OXK
CIB surface-flask NOAA Spain 41°49'N, 4°56'W, 845 masl 345 317 +2.51 +3.35 +0.38± 2.20 +0.21± 2.25 +0.40± 2.04 +0.74 CIB
RTA aircraft-pfp NOAA Cook Islands 21°15'S, 159°50'W, 3 masl 2442 0 +1000.00 +0.12 -0.12± 0.67 +0.15± 0.51 -0.32± 0.72 -99.00 RTA
RGV surface-insitu PSU United States 44° 5'N, 91°20'W, 251 masl 18137 0 +1000.00 +11.00 -1.11± 9.99 -1.61±13.58 -0.30± 5.11 -99.00 RGV
LJO surface-flask SIO United States 32°52'N, 117°15'W, 10 masl 339 333 +5.02 +0.83 +4.22± 2.65 +5.94± 2.75 +3.25± 2.11 +1.06 LJO
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
HBA surface-flask NOAA United Kingdom 75°36'S, 26°13'W, 30 masl 3 3 +0.50 +0.25 -0.38± 0.13 +nan± nan -0.38± 0.13 +1.05 HBA
AZR surface-flask NOAA Portugal 38°46'N, 27°23'W, 19 masl 482 461 +1.50 +0.47 +0.26± 1.25 +0.36± 1.45 +0.32± 1.19 +0.75 AZR
WSA surface-insitu EC Canada 43°56'N, 60° 1'W, 5 masl 1153 232 +5.59 +2.35 +0.06± 1.17 +nan± nan +0.45± 1.02 +0.08 WSA
GCI05 tower-insitu PSU United States 30°12'N, 85°50'W, 5 masl 14834 0 +1000.00 +13.50 -2.26±11.95 -2.94±13.49 -1.10± 9.98 -99.00 GCI05
UTUOU tower-insitu U-ATAQ United States 40°46'N, 111°51'W, 1427 masl 115523 0 +1000.00 +4.27 -10.75±19.53 -5.00± 9.24 -15.89±24.58 -99.00 UTUOU
SEY surface-flask NOAA Seychelles 4°41'S, 55°32'E, 2 masl 30 30 +0.75 +0.19 +0.35± 1.25 +0.36± 0.39 +0.35± 1.85 +3.20 SEY
HSU surface-flask NOAA United States 41° 4'N, 124°45'W, 0 masl 4 0 +1000.00 +17.59 -1.47± 2.44 +nan± nan -2.31± 1.97 -99.00 HSU
CES tower-insitu ECN the Netherlands 51°58'N, 4°56'E, -1 masl 109512 0 +1000.00 +6.39 -1.74±10.85 -1.43±11.00 -1.78±10.95 -99.00 CES
WBI surface-pfp NOAA United States 41°43'N, 91°21'W, 241 masl 168 0 +1000.00 +6.81 -1.15± 3.38 -1.48± 4.16 -1.07± 2.80 -99.00 WBI
OSI tower-insitu OSU United States 44°60'N, 122°42'W, 351 masl 28990 0 +1000.00 +6.37 +0.40± 7.48 -1.07± 8.24 +1.56± 5.86 -99.00 OSI
WBI aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 41°43'N, 91°21'W, 241 masl 98 0 +1000.00 +1.06 +0.10± 0.86 -0.16± 0.46 +0.16± 0.87 -99.00 WBI
SEY surface-flask NOAA Seychelles 4°41'S, 55°32'E, 2 masl 739 718 +0.75 +0.18 -0.12± 0.73 +0.07± 0.51 -0.33± 0.83 +1.00 SEY
HUN tower-insitu HMS Hungary 46°57'N, 16°39'E, 248 masl 127379 20705 +5.98 +10.04 -0.11± 3.43 +0.38± 3.25 -0.37± 3.49 +0.60 HUN
LLN surface-flask NOAA Taiwan 23°28'N, 120°52'E, 2862 masl 388 0 +1000.00 +0.29 +1.73± 5.95 +1.27± 9.05 +1.81± 3.42 -99.00 LLN
LUT surface-insitu RUG Netherlands 53°24'N, 6°21'E, 1 masl 68732 0 +1000.00 +6.66 -4.10± 9.46 -5.27±11.28 -3.11± 7.82 -99.00 LUT
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
LARC aircraft-insitu NASA-LaRC United States Variable 28069 0 +1000.00 +0.11 +0.75± 0.78 +0.75± 0.78 +nan± nan -99.00 LARC
DSI surface-flask NOAA Taiwan 20°42'N, 116°44'E, 3 masl 41 0 +1000.00 +0.39 +2.96± 2.93 +2.58± 2.46 +3.71± 3.01 -99.00 DSI
BRM tower-insitu KUP Switzerland 47°11'N, 8°11'E, 797 masl 33402 0 +1000.00 +8.28 +1.06±10.71 -0.33±11.49 +1.98±10.19 -99.00 BRM
MLO surface-flask CSIRO United States 19°32'N, 155°35'W, 3397 masl 546 0 +1000.00 +0.10 +0.19± 0.66 +0.02± 0.60 +0.35± 0.69 -99.00 MLO
CYA surface-flask CSIRO Australia 66°17'S, 110°31'E, 47 masl 381 381 +0.57 +0.10 -0.00± 0.28 +0.18± 0.25 -0.11± 0.26 +0.30 CYA
BSC surface-flask NOAA Romania 44°11'N, 28°40'E, 0 masl 458 0 +1000.00 +3.92 -8.27±13.35 -13.87±16.17 -4.32± 7.73 -99.00 BSC
HBA surface-flask NOAA United Kingdom 75°36'S, 26°13'W, 30 masl 750 740 +0.50 +0.14 +0.12± 0.26 +0.31± 0.25 +0.00± 0.20 +0.38 HBA
HNP surface-insitu EC Canada 43°37'N, 79°23'W, 87 masl 17086 0 +1000.00 +13.03 -3.57±15.01 -6.13±18.75 -0.80± 9.76 -99.00 HNP
FTL aircraft-pfp NOAA Brazil 3°31'S, 38°17'W, 3 masl 160 0 +1000.00 +0.25 -0.44± 1.39 +0.20± 1.43 -0.97± 0.91 -99.00 FTL
POC shipboard-flask NOAA N/A Variable 88 88 +0.79 +0.14 -0.08± 0.70 +0.04± 0.41 -0.18± 0.83 +0.94 POC
MCI aircraft-pfp NOAA United States Variable 128 0 +1000.00 +6.10 +0.18± 4.40 +0.36± 5.80 +0.56± 2.67 -99.00 MCI
TAC tower-insitu UNIVBRIS United Kingdom 52°31'N, 1° 8'E, 56 masl 27849 0 +1000.00 +3.91 -0.67± 5.98 -1.04± 7.04 -0.34± 5.27 -99.00 TAC
SCT surface-pfp NOAA United States 33°24'N, 81°50'W, 115 masl 1753 0 +1000.00 +4.10 -0.38± 3.67 -0.08± 3.75 -0.70± 3.73 -99.00 SCT
RCE surface-insitu PSU United States 40°48'N, 92°53'W, 286 masl 15256 0 +1000.00 +12.40 +1.08±11.85 +1.01±14.94 +2.58± 6.81 -99.00 RCE
TIK surface-flask NOAA Russia 71°36'N, 128°53'E, 19 masl 42 0 +1000.00 +4.87 -0.73± 7.76 -5.46± 7.64 +1.02± 2.61 -99.00 TIK
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
SMO surface-flask NOAA American Samoa 14°15'S, 170°34'W, 42 masl 75 0 +1000.00 +0.11 -0.19± 0.69 +0.35± 0.21 -0.68± 0.66 -99.00 SMO
RTA aircraft-pfp NOAA Cook Islands 21°15'S, 159°50'W, 3 masl 35 0 +1000.00 +0.12 -0.58± 0.43 +nan± nan -0.58± 0.43 -99.00 RTA
ACV surface-insitu PSU United States 39° 7'N, 79°27'W, 1026 masl 22824 0 +1000.00 +6.24 -5.99±12.98 -11.91±18.21 -1.79± 5.21 -99.00 ACV
INX aircraft-pfp NOAA United States Variable 332 0 +1000.00 +5.08 -0.03± 4.68 +1.18± 6.80 -0.81± 3.40 -99.00 INX
BHD surface-flask NOAA New Zealand 41°24'S, 174°52'E, 85 masl 225 213 +0.75 +0.23 +0.15± 0.70 +0.52± 0.67 -0.08± 0.61 +1.00 BHD
LARC aircraft-insitu NASA-LaRC United States Variable 52938 0 +1000.00 +2.90 +0.74± 3.93 +0.74± 3.93 +nan± nan -99.00 LARC
MRC surface-pfp NOAA United States 41°42'N, 76° 0'W, -9999999999999999455752309870428160 masl 181 0 +1000.00 +7.06 -0.93± 5.96 -1.12± 7.93 -1.09± 3.40 -99.00 MRC
OLI surface-insitu LBNL-ARM United States 70°30'N, 149°53'W, 2 masl 775955 0 +1005.94 +2.51 -1.45± 4.20 -1.63± 5.08 -1.30± 3.26 -99.00 OLI
CIT surface-insitu CALTECH United States 34° 8'N, 118° 8'W, 233 masl 31410 0 +1000.00 +3.33 -15.46±26.04 -7.93±16.50 -22.86±31.52 -99.00 CIT
BKT surface-flask NOAA Indonesia 0°12'S, 100°19'E, 845 masl 27 0 +1000.00 +0.61 +6.56± 3.43 +8.01± 3.89 +5.38± 2.78 -99.00 BKT
SMR tower-insitu UHELS Finland 61°51'N, 24°18'E, 181 masl 31189 0 +1000.00 +3.67 -0.14± 4.50 -0.62± 5.92 +0.45± 3.54 -99.00 SMR
RRL surface-insitu PSU United States 43°32'N, 95°25'W, 469 masl 18565 0 +1000.00 +8.51 +0.73± 7.88 +0.83±11.06 +1.20± 4.04 -99.00 RRL
GMI surface-flask NOAA Guam 13°23'N, 144°39'E, 0 masl 22 22 +0.75 +0.09 +0.43± 0.93 -0.19± 0.48 +0.48± 0.94 +1.89 GMI
STR surface-pfp NOAA United States 37°45'N, 122°27'W, 254 masl 4563 3946 +4.02 +2.00 -0.24± 2.34 -0.03± 2.28 -0.32± 2.40 +0.37 STR
CES tower-insitu ECN the Netherlands 51°58'N, 4°56'E, -1 masl 109693 0 +1000.00 +3.83 -2.09± 7.97 -1.30± 7.79 -2.66± 8.27 -99.00 CES
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
LLB surface-insitu EC Canada 54°57'N, 112°27'W, 540 masl 1910 327 +5.52 +4.31 -0.49± 2.68 +nan± nan -0.49± 2.72 +0.45 LLB
ACT aircraft-insitu NASA-LaRC United States Variable 144181 0 +1000.55 +2.26 +0.24± 2.33 +nan± nan +0.34± 2.00 -99.00 ACT
LIN surface-insitu HPB Germany 52° 7'N, 14° 7'E, 73 masl 7843 0 +1000.00 +5.84 -0.42± 9.09 -2.51±10.60 +1.77± 7.49 -99.00 LIN
ESP aircraft-pfp NOAA Canada 49°23'N, 126°33'W, 7 masl 209 0 +1000.00 +4.03 -0.45± 4.84 -0.27± 6.19 -0.37± 0.89 -99.00 ESP
THD aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 41° 3'N, 124° 9'W, 107 masl 118 0 +1000.00 +1.38 +0.04± 3.59 -0.29± 4.11 +0.33± 3.83 -99.00 THD
NOR tower-insitu LUND-CEC Sweden 60° 5'N, 17°29'E, 45 masl 16765 0 +1000.00 +3.50 -3.22± 8.12 -6.02±11.58 -1.37± 4.44 -99.00 NOR
SYO surface-flask NOAA Japan 69° 1'S, 39°35'E, 14 masl 398 395 +0.50 +0.11 +0.03± 0.27 +0.24± 0.24 -0.11± 0.21 +0.35 SYO
PSA surface-flask SIO United States 64°55'S, 64° 0'W, 10 masl 391 0 +1000.00 +0.28 +0.19± 0.31 +0.34± 0.27 +0.10± 0.31 -99.00 PSA
TPD surface-insitu EC Canada 42°37'N, 80°33'W, 231 masl 35392 0 +1000.00 +14.92 -1.74±15.06 -7.06±21.74 +2.03± 7.96 -99.00 TPD
CIB surface-flask NOAA Spain 41°49'N, 4°56'W, 845 masl 38 34 +2.50 +3.18 +0.40± 2.04 -0.23± 1.96 +0.81± 1.91 +0.51 CIB
INX surface-pfp NOAA United States Variable 1717 0 +1000.00 +8.36 -0.50± 7.99 -0.39±10.44 -1.07± 6.55 -99.00 INX
TAC tower-insitu UNIVBRIS United Kingdom 52°31'N, 1° 8'E, 56 masl 23302 0 +1000.00 +2.90 -0.58± 4.71 -0.70± 5.66 -0.42± 4.08 -99.00 TAC
ZEP surface-flask NOAA Norway and Sweden 78°54'N, 11°53'E, 474 masl 46 45 +1.50 +0.57 +0.33± 0.88 +0.35± 1.11 +0.21± 0.76 +0.50 ZEP
BCS surface-flask SIO_CO2 Mexico 23°18'N, 110°12'W, 4 masl 172 0 +1000.00 +0.78 -1.12± 3.87 -2.93± 4.91 +0.54± 1.95 -99.00 BCS
PFA aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 65° 4'N, 147°17'W, 210 masl 4018 0 +1000.00 +1.09 +0.11± 1.80 +0.39± 2.40 +0.10± 1.40 -99.00 PFA
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
INX04 surface-insitu PSU United States 39°36'N, 86° 7'W, 249 masl 3336 0 +1000.00 +12.83 -2.81±13.07 -4.80±18.15 -1.74±10.71 -99.00 INX04
LARC aircraft-insitu NASA-LaRC United States Variable 30057 0 +1000.00 +2.40 -1.69± 6.25 -1.69± 6.25 +nan± nan -99.00 LARC
GCI02 tower-insitu PSU United States 33°45'N, 89°51'W, 105 masl 10667 0 +1000.00 +12.63 -0.67±13.64 +0.89±16.47 -1.87±10.80 -99.00 GCI02
NAT surface-flask NOAA Brazil 5°48'S, 35°11'W, 50 masl 235 229 +1.50 +0.16 -0.63± 0.97 -0.43± 1.01 -0.84± 0.94 +0.62 NAT
TPD surface-insitu EC Canada 42°37'N, 80°33'W, 231 masl 3441 0 +1000.00 +13.20 +1.34±12.25 +nan± nan +2.57±11.53 -99.00 TPD
LARC aircraft-insitu NASA-LaRC United States Variable 57339 0 +1000.00 +1.38 +0.39± 4.05 +0.18± 5.22 +0.67± 1.45 -99.00 LARC
BRA surface-insitu EC Canada 51°12'N, 104°42'W, 595 masl 3354 583 +5.40 +6.13 +0.06± 1.85 +nan± nan +0.05± 1.84 +0.21 BRA
ACT aircraft-pfp NOAA United States Variable 118 0 +1000.00 +5.30 -0.84± 4.79 -0.84± 4.79 +nan± nan -99.00 ACT
NAT surface-flask IPEN Brazil 5°48'S, 35°11'W, 50 masl 201 0 +1000.00 +0.16 -0.57± 1.09 -0.43± 1.31 -0.68± 0.95 -99.00 NAT
TOM aircraft-insitu NOAA United States Variable 32054 0 +1000.00 +0.26 +0.13± 1.16 +nan± nan +0.13± 1.16 -99.00 TOM
SPO surface-insitu NOAA United States 89°59'S, 24°48'W, 2810 masl 9010 1386 +0.98 +0.10 -0.03± 0.27 +0.29± 0.12 -0.23± 0.16 +0.11 SPO
PAL surface-insitu FMI Finland 67°58'N, 24° 7'E, 565 masl 28523 0 +1000.00 +2.94 -0.48± 3.53 -0.37± 4.59 -0.27± 3.01 -99.00 PAL
ASC surface-flask NOAA United Kingdom 7°58'S, 14°24'W, 85 masl 60 60 +0.75 +0.19 +0.48± 0.90 +0.99± 0.52 +0.11± 1.03 +1.90 ASC
LJO surface-flask SIO_CO2 United States 32°52'N, 117°15'W, 10 masl 425 0 +1000.00 +1.34 +8.21± 7.63 +11.46± 7.01 +6.07± 6.65 -99.00 LJO
KEY surface-flask NOAA United States 25°40'N, 80° 9'W, 1 masl 32 31 +1.50 +0.48 +0.01± 0.74 +0.03± 0.58 -0.09± 0.81 +0.18 KEY
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
KEY surface-flask NOAA United States 25°40'N, 80° 9'W, 1 masl 695 571 +1.50 +1.22 +0.02± 0.89 +0.13± 0.86 -0.05± 0.93 +0.37 KEY
BMW surface-flask NOAA United Kingdom 32°16'N, 64°53'W, 30 masl 32 29 +1.50 +0.58 +1.09± 1.39 +0.89± 1.47 +1.17± 1.06 +1.32 BMW
CBY surface-insitu EC Canada 69° 1'N, 105° 3'W, 35 masl 28815 5660 +5.54 +2.12 +0.07± 1.15 -0.25± 1.53 +0.22± 0.87 +0.07 CBY
MBO tower-insitu NOAA United States 43°59'N, 121°41'W, 2731 masl 4503 0 +1000.00 +1.20 +0.45± 3.03 +0.24± 3.34 +0.70± 2.41 -99.00 MBO
BCK surface-insitu EC Canada 62°48'N, 116° 3'W, 179 masl 3406 683 +5.60 +2.53 +0.41± 1.11 +nan± nan +0.49± 1.03 +0.07 BCK
WSA surface-insitu EC Canada 43°56'N, 60° 1'W, 5 masl 88924 17286 +5.50 +1.70 +0.10± 1.88 +0.67± 2.47 -0.17± 1.49 +0.17 WSA
UTSUG tower-insitu U-ATAQ United States 40°44'N, 111°51'W, 1328 masl 79469 0 +1000.00 +5.22 -21.24±30.33 -12.13±18.35 -29.32±36.50 -99.00 UTSUG
MHD surface-insitu LSCE Ireland 53°20'N, 9°54'W, 5 masl 35535 0 +1000.00 +0.41 +0.20± 0.94 +0.55± 1.08 +0.02± 0.79 -99.00 MHD
DEC surface-insitu ICTA-UAB Spain 40°45'N, 0°47'E, 5 masl 19482 0 +1000.00 +4.83 -0.88± 9.67 -1.08±11.60 -0.70± 8.04 -99.00 DEC
HEI surface-insitu UHEI-IUP Germany 49°25'N, 8°40'E, 116 masl 123793 0 +1000.00 +7.20 -8.65±14.96 -8.28±14.05 -8.84±15.68 -99.00 HEI
STR surface-pfp NOAA United States 37°45'N, 122°27'W, 254 masl 576 249 +3.00 +2.21 -0.48± 2.62 -0.02± 2.13 -0.84± 2.97 +0.85 STR
LARC aircraft-insitu NASA-LaRC United States Variable 8004 0 +1000.00 +1.01 +0.02± 1.62 +nan± nan -0.22± 1.68 -99.00 LARC
DRP shipboard-flask NOAA N/A 59° 0'S, 64°41'W, 0 masl 219 219 +0.51 +0.22 +0.02± 0.34 +0.17± 0.39 -0.06± 0.32 +0.50 DRP
TAP surface-flask NOAA Republic of Korea 36°44'N, 126° 8'E, 16 masl 42 41 +5.40 +2.04 +2.29± 5.53 +2.00± 3.52 +3.77± 5.27 +1.58 TAP
INX12 surface-insitu PSU United States 39°46'N, 86° 2'W, 254 masl 2983 0 +1000.00 +13.20 -6.63±14.46 -10.11±20.41 -5.51±12.38 -99.00 INX12
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
UTA surface-flask NOAA United States 39°54'N, 113°43'W, 1327 masl 770 733 +2.50 +1.60 +0.20± 2.03 +0.65± 2.25 -0.28± 1.69 +0.67 UTA
ENA surface-insitu LBNL-ARM Portugal 39° 5'N, 28° 2'W, 30 masl 611997 0 +1001.11 +0.52 -1.15± 3.87 -1.54± 5.03 -0.80± 3.43 -99.00 ENA
INX10 surface-insitu PSU United States 39°43'N, 86° 9'W, 223 masl 5136 0 +1000.00 +14.76 -6.80±15.76 -8.21±18.42 -5.42±12.51 -99.00 INX10
WGC tower-insitu NOAA United States 38°16'N, 121°29'W, 0 masl 9269 1395 +6.00 +5.05 +0.04± 3.53 +0.76± 2.83 -0.23± 3.92 +0.64 WGC
ELL surface-flask ICTA-UAB Spain 42°34'N, 0°57'E, 2002 masl 139 0 +1000.00 +0.87 +0.95± 1.89 +1.68± 1.80 +0.02± 1.51 -99.00 ELL
LARC aircraft-insitu NASA-LaRC United States Variable 56390 0 +1000.00 +2.12 -0.10± 3.19 -0.10± 3.19 +nan± nan -99.00 LARC
CALNEX2010 aircraft-insitu NOAA-CSD United States Variable 39373 0 +1000.00 +3.54 -0.66±14.05 -0.43±12.34 +1.10± 7.76 -99.00 CALNEX2010
ALT surface-flask SIO Canada 82°27'N, 62°30'W, 190 masl 384 0 +1000.00 +0.48 +0.26± 0.69 +0.12± 0.76 +0.36± 0.69 -99.00 ALT
AAC surface-insitu PSU United States 29°44'N, 82°13'W, 44 masl 2145 0 +1000.00 +9.50 -0.74± 9.14 +1.16± 9.53 -0.71± 9.26 -99.00 AAC
BAO tower-insitu NOAA United States 40° 3'N, 105° 0'W, 1584 masl 70854 11271 +9.83 +5.03 -1.49± 3.60 -0.96± 3.14 -2.12± 3.88 +0.18 BAO
OIL aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 41°17'N, 88°56'W, 192 masl 424 0 +1000.00 +2.14 +0.59± 2.26 +0.62± 3.03 +0.45± 1.25 -99.00 OIL
YON surface-insitu JMA Japan 24°28'N, 123° 1'E, 30 masl 82580 0 +1000.00 +0.39 +0.08± 1.77 +0.32± 1.63 +0.18± 1.76 -99.00 YON
AIA aircraft-flask CSIRO Australia 40°32'S, 144°18'E, 0 masl 63 0 +1000.00 +0.15 +0.33± 0.55 +0.33± 0.55 +nan± nan -99.00 AIA
MWO surface-pfp NOAA United States 34°13'N, 118° 4'W, 1728 masl 2283 0 +1000.00 +0.55 -2.30± 5.11 -2.46± 5.37 -2.05± 4.95 -99.00 MWO
COP tower-insitu HU United States 42°21'N, 71° 5'W, 6 masl 35850 0 +1000.00 +8.24 -2.75±13.09 -2.60±17.18 -3.14±10.02 -99.00 COP
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
BME surface-flask NOAA United Kingdom 32°22'N, 64°39'W, 12 masl 244 231 +1.50 +0.64 +0.52± 1.24 +1.13± 1.21 +0.21± 1.23 +0.93 BME
LEF aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 45°57'N, 90°16'W, 472 masl 3431 0 +1000.00 +2.80 -0.02± 2.50 +0.18± 3.57 -0.02± 1.49 -99.00 LEF
MNM surface-insitu JMA Japan 24°17'N, 153°59'E, 8 masl 109810 0 +1000.00 +0.21 +0.29± 0.77 +0.24± 0.80 +0.44± 0.74 -99.00 MNM
CBA surface-flask SIO United States 55°13'N, 162°43'W, 21 masl 350 0 +1000.00 +0.52 -0.04± 1.96 +0.79± 2.90 -0.39± 0.94 -99.00 CBA
FNE surface-insitu EC Canada 58°50'N, 122°34'W, 361 masl 10455 0 +1000.00 +7.88 -12.12±19.49 -15.24±23.50 -9.38±13.84 -99.00 FNE
ESP surface-insitu EC Canada 49°23'N, 126°33'W, 7 masl 3036 546 +5.45 +2.19 -0.12± 1.62 +nan± nan -0.15± 1.61 +0.11 ESP
SDZ surface-flask NOAA Peoples Republic of China 40°39'N, 117° 7'E, 293 masl 257 0 +1000.00 +3.36 -2.15± 8.68 -3.24±10.81 -1.14± 6.95 -99.00 SDZ
RK1 surface-flask SIO_CO2 Raoul Island 29°12'S, 177°54'W, 2 masl 115 0 +1000.00 +0.30 -0.61± 2.36 +0.05± 0.57 -0.90± 1.01 -99.00 RK1
TGC aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 27°44'N, 96°52'W, 0 masl 86 0 +1000.00 +0.66 +0.64± 0.97 +0.53± 1.01 +0.77± 1.08 -99.00 TGC
ASC surface-flask NOAA United Kingdom 7°58'S, 14°24'W, 85 masl 1466 1444 +0.75 +0.19 -0.07± 0.75 +0.33± 0.63 -0.40± 0.71 +1.12 ASC
WBI aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 41°43'N, 91°21'W, 241 masl 1959 0 +1000.00 +2.72 +0.05± 2.67 -0.13± 3.02 +0.35± 1.56 -99.00 WBI
LMU surface-insitu ICTA-UAB Spain 41°36'N, 1° 6'W, 571 masl 6143 0 +1000.00 +3.73 -0.89± 6.20 -0.50± 5.35 -0.60± 5.11 -99.00 LMU
ICE surface-flask NOAA Iceland 63°24'N, 20°17'W, 118 masl 30 30 +1.50 +0.49 +0.34± 1.27 +1.06± 1.54 -0.05± 1.11 +0.75 ICE
THD surface-flask NOAA United States 41° 3'N, 124° 9'W, 107 masl 675 646 +5.08 +2.52 -1.84± 3.51 -2.17± 3.87 -1.42± 3.02 +0.62 THD
OMT surface-insitu OSU United States 44°27'N, 121°33'W, 1255 masl 79073 0 +1000.00 +2.79 -0.41± 4.72 -1.30± 5.76 +0.23± 3.71 -99.00 OMT
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
MWO surface-pfp NOAA United States 34°13'N, 118° 4'W, 1728 masl 466 0 +1000.00 +0.71 -2.53± 5.37 -2.98± 5.11 -2.11± 5.44 -99.00 MWO
AMY surface-flask NOAA Republic of Korea 36°32'N, 126°20'E, 85 masl 126 0 +1000.00 +2.87 -3.17± 9.97 -5.25±10.47 -1.16± 9.15 -99.00 AMY
SPO surface-flask SIO United States 89°59'S, 24°48'W, 2810 masl 396 0 +1000.00 +0.09 +0.17± 0.30 +0.44± 0.22 -0.00± 0.23 -99.00 SPO
EGB surface-insitu EC Canada 44°14'N, 79°47'W, 251 masl 90404 8950 +4.87 +9.78 +0.05± 2.35 +0.51± 2.78 -0.12± 2.19 +0.44 EGB
BRM tower-insitu KUP Switzerland 47°11'N, 8°11'E, 797 masl 33398 0 +1000.00 +8.64 +0.55±11.15 -0.82±11.87 +1.44±10.66 -99.00 BRM
WLG surface-flask NOAA Peoples Republic of China 36°17'N, 100°54'E, 3810 masl 38 35 +1.50 +1.02 -0.05± 1.34 +0.28± 1.55 +0.02± 1.07 +1.08 WLG
WGC tower-insitu NOAA United States 38°16'N, 121°29'W, 0 masl 75428 11663 +5.90 +4.78 +0.33± 3.29 +1.27± 2.74 -0.07± 3.55 +0.48 WGC
NAT surface-flask NOAA Brazil 5°48'S, 35°11'W, 50 masl 37 37 +1.50 +0.17 +0.40± 1.06 +0.94± 0.77 -0.04± 1.19 +0.55 NAT
WIS surface-flask NOAA Israel 29°58'N, 35° 4'E, 151 masl 857 825 +2.50 +0.48 -0.29± 1.98 +0.23± 1.70 -0.45± 1.95 +0.65 WIS
AME surface-insitu PSU United States 41°10'N, 96°28'W, 362 masl 36708 0 +1000.00 +9.85 -8.76±26.95 -21.57±43.18 -1.61± 7.88 -99.00 AME
OXK surface-flask NOAA Germany 50° 2'N, 11°49'E, 1022 masl 410 396 +5.00 +1.74 -0.66± 3.51 -0.31± 3.74 -1.19± 3.45 +0.55 OXK
LMP surface-flask NOAA Italy 35°31'N, 12°37'E, 45 masl 437 415 +1.50 +1.31 +0.28± 1.37 -0.26± 1.36 +0.68± 1.27 +0.90 LMP
LMP surface-flask NOAA Italy 35°31'N, 12°37'E, 45 masl 36 34 +1.50 +1.04 +0.58± 1.33 -0.17± 1.13 +1.27± 1.25 +1.09 LMP
MLO surface-flask SIO United States 19°32'N, 155°35'W, 3397 masl 629 0 +1000.00 +0.10 +0.28± 0.68 +0.19± 0.62 +0.36± 0.75 -99.00 MLO
EIC surface-flask NOAA Chile 27°10'S, 109°26'W, 47 masl 562 529 +1.50 +0.11 +0.27± 1.09 +0.74± 0.90 -0.13± 1.02 +0.58 EIC
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
SPL surface-insitu NCAR United States 40°27'N, 106°44'W, 3210 masl 71929 0 +1000.00 +0.54 -0.47± 1.92 +0.01± 2.36 -0.84± 1.49 -99.00 SPL
BRW surface-insitu NOAA United States 71°19'N, 156°37'W, 11 masl 8939 866 +1.38 +1.30 +0.20± 0.72 +0.49± 0.93 +0.09± 0.61 +0.87 BRW
SCA aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 32°46'N, 79°33'W, 0 masl 2791 0 +1000.00 +1.25 +0.23± 1.98 +0.04± 2.57 +0.34± 1.50 -99.00 SCA
CHR surface-flask NOAA Republic of Kiribati 1°42'N, 157° 9'W, 0 masl 536 524 +0.75 +0.15 -0.38± 0.54 -0.24± 0.45 -0.45± 0.57 +0.84 CHR
MEX surface-flask NOAA Mexico 18°59'N, 97°19'W, 4464 masl 307 306 +2.50 +0.40 +0.78± 1.52 +1.37± 1.63 +0.30± 1.09 +0.47 MEX
WIS surface-flask NOAA Israel 29°58'N, 35° 4'E, 151 masl 39 39 +2.50 +0.38 +0.05± 1.39 +0.27± 1.62 -0.16± 1.29 +0.30 WIS
GMI surface-flask NOAA Guam 13°23'N, 144°39'E, 0 masl 1024 969 +0.75 +0.09 +0.24± 0.81 +0.22± 0.93 +0.33± 0.71 +1.31 GMI
LLN surface-flask NOAA Taiwan 23°28'N, 120°52'E, 2862 masl 33 0 +1000.00 +0.29 +0.42± 1.86 +0.83± 1.80 +0.63± 1.62 -99.00 LLN
BRW surface-flask SIO_CO2 United States 71°19'N, 156°37'W, 11 masl 800 0 +1000.00 +2.41 -1.31±35.69 +0.02± 4.18 -2.95±50.61 -99.00 BRW
HDP surface-insitu NCAR United States 40°34'N, 111°39'W, 3351 masl 62719 0 +1000.00 +0.38 -0.16± 1.39 -0.17± 1.72 -0.19± 1.13 -99.00 HDP
OBN surface-flask NOAA Russia 55° 7'N, 36°36'E, 183 masl 136 132 +5.03 +3.65 -0.21± 3.68 -1.67± 3.73 +0.67± 3.51 +0.61 OBN
MHD surface-flask NOAA Ireland 53°20'N, 9°54'W, 5 masl 744 667 +1.50 +1.39 +0.10± 0.94 +0.31± 1.07 +0.01± 0.85 +0.43 MHD
FIK surface-flask LSCE Greece 35°20'N, 25°40'E, 150 masl 241 0 +1000.00 +1.11 +0.45± 2.88 +0.38± 3.53 +0.65± 2.67 -99.00 FIK
GCI03 tower-insitu PSU United States 31°53'N, 89°44'W, 132 masl 10856 0 +1000.00 +13.38 -2.73±15.57 -2.61±19.19 -3.71±10.84 -99.00 GCI03
WPC shipboard-flask NOAA N/A Variable 265 0 +1000.00 +0.22 -0.08± 1.12 +0.20± 0.76 -0.10± 1.39 -99.00 WPC
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
CES tower-insitu ECN the Netherlands 51°58'N, 4°56'E, -1 masl 107970 0 +1000.00 +6.61 -5.42±14.60 -7.06±16.40 -4.16±12.81 -99.00 CES
SPO surface-flask CSIRO United States 89°59'S, 24°48'W, 2810 masl 166 0 +1000.00 +0.09 -0.03± 0.32 +0.16± 0.31 -0.19± 0.27 -99.00 SPO
THD aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 41° 3'N, 124° 9'W, 107 masl 1975 0 +1000.00 +1.99 +0.14± 2.59 -0.19± 2.83 +0.42± 2.58 -99.00 THD
INX01 surface-insitu PSU United States 39°35'N, 86°25'W, 256 masl 10364 0 +1000.00 +12.14 +0.71±11.80 -0.03±15.12 +0.43± 6.89 -99.00 INX01
HTM tower-insitu LUND-CEC Sweden 56° 6'N, 13°25'E, 115 masl 6787 0 +1000.00 +3.94 -1.77± 5.89 -2.00± 7.54 -1.65± 4.52 -99.00 HTM
LARC aircraft-insitu NASA-LaRC United States Variable 37889 0 +1000.00 +2.19 -0.58± 2.01 -0.79± 1.88 +nan± nan -99.00 LARC
HSU surface-flask NOAA United States 41° 4'N, 124°45'W, 0 masl 78 0 +1000.00 +7.99 +2.36± 9.30 +0.06± 2.53 +4.71±12.98 -99.00 HSU
MSH surface-pfp NOAA United States 41°39'N, 70°30'W, 32 masl 65 0 +1000.00 +3.44 +0.48± 5.01 +0.56± 6.19 -0.84± 2.25 -99.00 MSH
CBA surface-flask NOAA United States 55°13'N, 162°43'W, 21 masl 1245 1119 +1.51 +0.52 -0.51± 1.47 +0.46± 1.73 -0.99± 1.01 +1.19 CBA
LEF surface-pfp NOAA United States 45°57'N, 90°16'W, 472 masl 2743 0 +1000.00 +4.64 -0.10± 3.34 +0.48± 4.69 -0.27± 2.24 -99.00 LEF
HUN surface-flask NOAA Hungary 46°57'N, 16°39'E, 248 masl 821 0 +1000.00 +7.43 -0.64± 4.95 +0.26± 4.37 -0.85± 5.42 -99.00 HUN
CGO surface-flask NOAA Australia 40°41'S, 144°41'E, 94 masl 38 38 +0.50 +0.24 +0.06± 0.86 +0.57± 0.52 -0.46± 0.99 +3.24 CGO
NOR tower-insitu LUND-CEC Sweden 60° 5'N, 17°29'E, 45 masl 16768 0 +1000.00 +3.39 -2.32± 6.70 -4.34± 9.45 -1.04± 4.10 -99.00 NOR
EST surface-insitu EC Canada 51°40'N, 110°12'W, 707 masl 56090 7373 +5.29 +5.63 -0.20± 2.15 -0.09± 2.86 -0.23± 1.98 +0.30 EST
MBO tower-insitu NOAA United States 43°59'N, 121°41'W, 2731 masl 22195 0 +1000.00 +0.97 -0.12± 3.66 -0.81± 4.71 +0.17± 1.98 -99.00 MBO
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
OWA surface-insitu OSU United States 44° 4'N, 123°38'W, 715 masl 31316 0 +1000.00 +2.80 -1.18± 4.17 -1.49± 5.00 -0.60± 3.40 -99.00 OWA
CRV tower-insitu NOAA United States 64°59'N, 147°36'W, 611 masl 38268 0 +1000.00 +2.32 +0.26± 6.30 +0.02±10.00 +0.76± 2.51 -99.00 CRV
RPB surface-flask NOAA Barbados 13°10'N, 59°26'W, 15 masl 47 47 +1.50 +0.26 +0.21± 0.58 +0.71± 0.53 -0.13± 0.37 +0.18 RPB
ULB aircraft-pfp NOAA Mongolia 47°24'N, 106° 0'E, 1350 masl 517 517 +2.00 +0.71 +0.20± 1.18 +0.27± 1.40 +0.22± 1.15 +0.69 ULB
CFA surface-flask CSIRO Australia 19°17'S, 147° 3'E, 2 masl 334 331 +1.63 +0.57 -0.48± 1.05 -0.21± 1.25 -0.72± 0.88 +0.52 CFA
BRW surface-flask NOAA United States 71°19'N, 156°37'W, 11 masl 1012 0 +1000.00 +1.36 -0.10± 1.49 +0.04± 2.02 -0.16± 1.08 -99.00 BRW
BRA surface-insitu EC Canada 51°12'N, 104°42'W, 595 masl 46629 6770 +5.38 +6.86 -0.09± 2.03 -0.51± 2.84 -0.01± 1.83 +0.27 BRA
CPS surface-insitu EC Canada 49°49'N, 74°59'W, 381 masl 41211 6458 +5.31 +4.47 +0.12± 1.96 +0.66± 2.60 -0.02± 1.58 +0.23 CPS
SAN aircraft-pfp NOAA Brazil 2°51'S, 54°57'W, 78 masl 322 309 +2.00 +0.58 +0.10± 1.81 -0.26± 1.70 +0.46± 1.99 +1.07 SAN
GAT surface-insitu HPB Germany 53° 4'N, 11°27'E, 70 masl 5037 0 +1000.00 +3.20 -1.69± 6.24 -1.09± 5.54 -3.34± 6.04 -99.00 GAT
ARA surface-flask CSIRO Australia 23°52'S, 148°28'E, 175 masl 22 0 +1000.00 +1.44 -1.34± 2.55 -0.89± 1.79 -1.14± 0.89 -99.00 ARA
NHA aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 42°57'N, 70°38'W, 0 masl 3285 0 +1000.00 +1.84 +0.27± 2.38 +0.43± 3.37 +0.26± 1.75 -99.00 NHA
AMS surface-insitu LSCE France 37°48'S, 77°32'E, 55 masl 126809 0 +1000.00 +0.20 -0.25± 0.86 +0.26± 0.52 -0.73± 0.87 -99.00 AMS
ORC aircraft-insitu NCAR Chile Variable 40217 0 +1000.00 +0.24 -0.78± 1.04 +nan± nan -0.78± 1.04 -99.00 ORC
MRC surface-pfp NOAA United States 41°28'N, 76°25'W, 651 masl 135 0 +1000.00 +7.37 -0.58± 7.90 +0.78±11.55 -1.51± 5.37 -99.00 MRC
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
CPT surface-insitu SAWS South Africa 34°21'S, 18°29'E, 230 masl 113029 0 +1000.00 +0.30 +0.10± 0.82 +0.65± 0.73 -0.28± 0.66 -99.00 CPT
GIC surface-insitu ICTA-UAB Spain 40°21'N, 5°11'W, 1436 masl 25820 0 +1000.00 +1.34 -8.64±15.97 -15.36±21.12 -4.96±10.78 -99.00 GIC
UUM surface-flask NOAA Mongolia 44°27'N, 111° 6'E, 1007 masl 801 751 +2.50 +1.08 -0.15± 2.48 -0.69± 2.85 +0.34± 2.11 +1.03 UUM
CGO surface-flask CSIRO Australia 40°41'S, 144°41'E, 94 masl 837 0 +1000.00 +0.12 +0.13± 0.36 +0.40± 0.28 -0.10± 0.29 -99.00 CGO
JFJ surface-insitu KUP Switzerland 46°33'N, 7°59'E, 3570 masl 87610 14539 +2.97 +0.79 +0.05± 1.60 +0.17± 1.45 -0.05± 1.74 +0.34 JFJ
XIC surface-insitu ICTA-UAB Spain 41°59'N, 8° 1'W, 890 masl 5553 0 +1000.00 +1.33 -0.78± 3.85 -0.02± 3.91 -0.62± 3.76 -99.00 XIC
SGP surface-flask NOAA United States 36°36'N, 97°29'W, 314 masl 685 645 +3.00 +4.66 -0.27± 2.26 -0.63± 2.63 +0.02± 1.89 +0.59 SGP
CBA surface-flask NOAA United States 55°13'N, 162°43'W, 21 masl 83 78 +1.50 +0.58 -0.66± 1.29 -0.83± 1.52 -0.43± 1.08 +0.99 CBA
TIK surface-flask NOAA Russia 71°36'N, 128°53'E, 19 masl 251 0 +1000.00 +5.85 +0.03± 7.80 -3.77± 6.15 +2.21± 8.56 -99.00 TIK
RBA-B aircraft-pfp IPEN Brazil 9°22'S, 67°36'W, -9999999999999999455752309870428160 masl 675 0 +1000.00 +1.22 -0.05± 3.60 +0.73± 4.14 -0.02± 3.08 -99.00 RBA-B
CHL surface-insitu EC Canada 58°45'N, 94° 4'W, 29 masl 28854 5522 +5.55 +4.17 +0.16± 1.56 -0.05± 2.18 +0.27± 1.08 +0.11 CHL
FSD surface-insitu EC Canada 49°53'N, 81°34'W, 210 masl 3297 620 +5.51 +5.96 +0.12± 1.70 +nan± nan +0.20± 1.69 +0.14 FSD
PTA surface-flask NOAA United States 38°57'N, 123°44'W, 17 masl 428 395 +5.01 +3.34 -2.27± 3.56 -1.61± 3.56 -2.48± 3.53 +0.69 PTA
HPB surface-flask NOAA Germany 47°48'N, 11° 1'E, 936 masl 39 37 +5.00 +4.53 +1.82± 3.84 +2.33± 4.51 +1.15± 2.93 +0.56 HPB
TAC tower-insitu UNIVBRIS United Kingdom 52°31'N, 1° 8'E, 56 masl 27798 0 +1000.00 +4.07 -1.84± 7.01 -2.79± 8.54 -1.15± 5.88 -99.00 TAC
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
CRV surface-pfp NOAA United States 64°59'N, 147°36'W, 611 masl 881 0 +1000.00 +2.17 +0.55± 3.31 +1.06± 4.44 +0.49± 2.17 -99.00 CRV
ABP surface-flask IPEN Brazil 12°46'S, 38°10'W, 1 masl 104 0 +1000.00 +0.42 -1.04± 1.43 -0.53± 1.36 -1.54± 1.30 -99.00 ABP
FSD surface-insitu EC Canada 49°53'N, 81°34'W, 210 masl 129507 19416 +5.23 +6.46 -0.05± 2.06 +0.19± 2.81 -0.06± 1.67 +0.30 FSD
OFR surface-insitu OSU United States 44°39'N, 123°33'W, 263 masl 58193 0 +1000.00 +7.82 -0.09± 9.53 -0.20±10.96 +0.37± 8.47 -99.00 OFR
SHM surface-flask NOAA United States 52°43'N, 174° 8'E, 23 masl 54 53 +2.50 +0.64 -0.11± 1.74 +0.93± 2.10 -0.56± 0.94 +0.60 SHM
PAL surface-insitu FMI Finland 67°58'N, 24° 7'E, 565 masl 23687 23687 +9.49 +1.45 -0.04± 1.20 +0.23± 1.65 -0.10± 0.97 +0.03 PAL
ESP aircraft-pfp NOAA Canada 49°23'N, 126°33'W, 7 masl 3800 0 +1000.00 +2.87 +0.04± 2.90 -0.09± 4.07 +0.15± 1.88 -99.00 ESP
MLO surface-flask SIO_CO2 United States 19°32'N, 155°35'W, 3397 masl 877 0 +1000.00 +0.11 +0.22± 0.67 +0.16± 0.71 +0.31± 0.66 -99.00 MLO
AMT tower-insitu NOAA United States 45° 2'N, 68°41'W, 53 masl 9382 1441 +6.00 +7.76 +0.23± 2.51 +0.78± 3.05 +0.04± 2.17 +0.23 AMT
PRS surface-insitu RSE Italy 45°56'N, 7°42'E, 3480 masl 61520 0 +1000.00 +0.82 +0.13± 1.66 +0.80± 1.85 -0.18± 1.54 -99.00 PRS
AZR surface-flask NOAA Portugal 38°46'N, 27°23'W, 19 masl 5 5 +1.50 +0.63 +0.40± 0.30 +nan± nan +0.40± 0.30 +0.07 AZR
NWR surface-pfp NOAA United States 40° 3'N, 105°35'W, 3523 masl 2320 0 +1000.00 +0.58 +0.61± 1.94 +1.51± 2.42 +0.04± 1.34 -99.00 NWR
CRV aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 64°59'N, 147°36'W, 611 masl 344 0 +1000.00 +2.70 +0.76± 3.41 +0.78± 3.63 +0.34± 0.94 -99.00 CRV
RMM surface-insitu PSU United States 41° 8'N, 96°27'W, 358 masl 16623 0 +1000.00 +8.60 +0.16± 8.57 -1.13±11.75 +1.62± 4.62 -99.00 RMM
BHD surface-insitu NIWA New Zealand 41°24'S, 174°52'E, 85 masl 537 537 +0.78 +0.20 +0.27± 0.53 +0.47± 0.49 +0.08± 0.53 +0.69 BHD
Site code Sampling Type Lab. Country Lat, Lon, Elev. (m ASL) No. Obs. Available No. Obs. Assimilated √R (μmol mol-1) √HPH (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (JJAS) (μmol mol-1) H(x)-y (NDJFMA) (μmol mol-1) Inn. Χ2 Site code
PSA surface-flask NOAA United States 64°55'S, 64° 0'W, 10 masl 24 24 +0.50 +0.26 +0.03± 0.27 +0.19± 0.24 +0.01± 0.23 +0.40 PSA
ETL surface-insitu EC Canada 54°21'N, 104°59'W, 492 masl 3404 662 +5.54 +5.65 +0.19± 1.46 +nan± nan +0.27± 1.33 +0.12 ETL
MLO surface-insitu NOAA United States 19°32'N, 155°35'W, 3397 masl 8970 992 +1.40 +0.11 +0.35± 0.61 +0.17± 0.48 +0.39± 0.67 +0.32 MLO
HIL aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 40° 4'N, 87°55'W, 201 masl 107 0 +1000.00 +1.60 -0.03± 1.44 +0.95± 1.42 -0.10± 1.40 -99.00 HIL
MID surface-flask NOAA United States 28°13'N, 177°23'W, 11 masl 41 40 +1.50 +0.24 +0.93± 1.26 +1.14± 1.62 +0.86± 0.96 +1.28 MID
INX surface-pfp NOAA United States 39°35'N, 86°25'W, 256 masl 237 0 +1000.00 +8.16 -1.63± 6.52 -4.25±10.32 -0.93± 3.10 -99.00 INX
UTA surface-flask NOAA United States 39°54'N, 113°43'W, 1327 masl 46 44 +2.50 +0.54 -0.06± 2.21 -0.38± 2.22 -0.33± 2.10 +0.87 UTA
SHM surface-flask NOAA United States 52°43'N, 174° 8'E, 23 masl 650 591 +2.50 +0.52 -0.06± 1.95 +1.46± 2.22 -0.98± 1.06 +0.73 SHM
CMA aircraft-pfp NOAA United States 38°50'N, 74°19'W, 0 masl 2429 0 +1000.00 +2.04 +0.17± 2.49 -0.10± 3.34 +0.36± 1.75 -99.00 CMA
HUN surface-flask NOAA Hungary 46°57'N, 16°39'E, 248 masl 32 0 +1000.00 +8.49 -0.93± 8.33 +2.56± 6.32 -6.37± 7.66 -99.00 HUN

3.   Further Reading




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